Circulation
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CIRCULATION. CIRCULATION. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ASSOCIATES INTIMATELY WITH ALL BODY TISSUES CIRCULATORY SYSTEM A SYSTEM OF INTERNAL TRANSPORT; TRANSPORTS OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE, DISTRIBUTES NUTRIENTS TO BODY CELLS, AND CONVEYS THE WASTE PRODUCTS OF METABOLISM TO SPECIFIC SITES FOR DISPOSAL.

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CIRCULATION

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Circulation

CIRCULATION


Circulation1

CIRCULATION

  • THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ASSOCIATES INTIMATELY WITH ALL BODY TISSUES

    • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

      • A SYSTEM OF INTERNAL TRANSPORT; TRANSPORTS OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE, DISTRIBUTES NUTRIENTS TO BODY CELLS, AND CONVEYS THE WASTE PRODUCTS OF METABOLISM TO SPECIFIC SITES FOR DISPOSAL


Circulation2

CIRCULATION

  • SEVERAL TYPES OF INTERNAL TRANSPORT HAVE EVOLVED IN ANIMALS

    • SIMPLE ANIMALS HAVE NO TRUE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (WHY DON’T THEY NEED ONE??)

      • EX. HYDRA

    • BLOOD

      • SPECIALIZED CIRCULATORY FLUID FOUND IN MORE COMPLEX ANIMALS

    • TWO BASIC TYPES OF SYSTEMS

      • OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

      • CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


Circulation3

CIRCULATION

  • TWO BASIC TYPES OF SYSTEMS


Circulation4

CIRCULATION

  • TWO BASIC TYPES OF SYSTEMS

    • OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

      • BLOOD LEAVES THE VESSELS AND BATH THE CELLS DIRECTLY (EX. GRASSHOPPER)

    • CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (A.K.A. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM)

      • CONSISTS OF A HEART AND TUBE-LIKE VESSELS; THE BLOOD IS ALWAYS CONFINED TO THESE VESSELS (EX. FISH, HUMANS)


Circulation5

CIRCULATION

  • CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

    • THREE KINDS OF VESSELS

      • ARTERIES

        • CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART

        • ARTERIOLES  SMALL VESSELS, OFF ARTERIES, THAT GIVE RISE TO CAPILLARIES

      • VEINS

        • CARRY BLOOD TO THE HEART

        • VENULES  RESULT OF CONVERGING CAPILLARIES THAT EVENTUALLY FORM VEINS

      • CAPILLARIES

        • CONVEY BLOOD BETWEEN ARTERIES AND VEINS WITHIN EACH ORGAN

        • CAPILLARY BEDS  NETWORKS OF CAPILLARIES THAT INFILTRATE EVERY ORGAN AND TISSUE IN THE BODY


Circulation6

CIRCULATION

  • VERTEBRATE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS REFLECT EVOLUTION


Circulation7

CIRCULATION

  • VERTEBRATE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS

    • PULMONARY CIRCUIT

      • CARRIES BLOOD BETWEEN THE HEART AND THE GAS EXCHANGE TISSUES IN THE LUNGS

    • SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT

      • CARRIES BLOOD BETWEEN THE HEART AND THE REST OF THE BODY


Circulation8

CIRCULATION

  • HUMAN HEART AND CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM TYPIFY THOSE OF MAMMALS


Circulation9

CIRCULATION

  • FOLLOWING THE PATH OF BLOOD

    • RIGHT VENTRICLE

    • *PULMONARY ARTERIES*

    • CAPILLARIES IN LUNGS

    • *PULMONARY VEIN*

    • LEFT ATRIUM

    • LEFT VENTRICLE

    • AORTA

    • ARTERIES BRANCH OFF AORTA

    • SUPERIOR VENA CAVA / INFERIOR VENA CAVA

    • RIGHT ATRIUM

    • *VAVA L VAVA*


Circulation10

CIRCULATION

  • THE STRUCTURE OF BLOOD VESSELS FITS THEIR FUNCTION

    • ARTERIES

      • THICKEST

    • VEINS

      • VALVES

    • CAPILLARIES

      • THINNEST


Circulation11

CIRCULATION

  • THE HEART CONTRACTS AND RELAXES RHYTHMICALLY

    • CARDIAC CYCLE

      • A COMPLETE SEQUENCE OF FILLING AND PUMPING OF THE HEART

      • DIASTOLE

        • ENTIRE HEART IS RELAXED; BLOODFLOWS INTO ALL FOUR CHAMBERS

          • AV VALVES ARE OPEN,ALLOWING BLOOD TO GOFROM ATRIUM TO VENTRICLES

      • SYSTOLE

        • BRIEF CONTRACTION THAT FORCESALL BLOOD INTO VENTRICLES (0.1 SEC)

        • VENTRICLES CONTRACT FOR ABOUT0.3 SEC, CLOSING AV VALVES AND OPENINGSEMI-LUNAR VALVES WHICH PUMPS BLOOD INTO ARTERIES


Circulation12

CIRCULATION

  • THE HEART CONTRACTS AND RELAXES RHYTHMICALLY

    • CARDIAC OUTPUT

      • THE VOLUME OF BLOOD PERMINUTE THAT THE LEFTVENTRICLE PUMPS INTO THESYSTEMIC CIRCUIT

    • VALVES PREVENT BACKFLOWAND KEEP BLOOD FLOWINGIN RIGHT DIRECTION

      • RESPONSIBLE FOR “LUB-DUB”SOUND HEART MAKES

      • WHEN DEFECTIVE, RESULTS INA MURMUR

        • EXTRA HEART SOUNDS


Circulation13

CIRCULATION

  • THE PACEMAKER SETS THE TEMPO OF THE HEARTBEAT


Circulation14

CIRCULATION

  • THE PACEMAKER SETS THE TEMPO OF THE HEARTBEAT

    • PACEMAKER  A.K.A. SA (SINOATRIAL) NODE; SPECIALIZED REGION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE THAT MAINTAINS THE HEARTS PUMPING RHYTHYM BY SETTING THE RATE AT WHICH ALL THE MUSCLE CELLS OF THE HEART CONTRACT

      • PACEMAKER GENERATES ELECTRICAL SIGNALS

      • SIGNALS SPREAD THROUGHOUT ATRIA; 0.1 SEC TO REACH AV (ATRIOVENTRICULAR) NODE

      • SPECIALIZED MUSCLE FIBERS RELAY SIGNALS AND CAUSE VENTRICLE CONTRACTION THAT PUMPS BLOOD

    • ARTIFICIAL PACEMAKER

      • A TINY ELECTRONIC DEVICE SURGICALLY IMPLANTED NEAR THE AV NODE; EMIT ELECTRICAL SIGNALS THAT TRIGGER NORMAL HEARTBEATS


Circulation15

CIRCULATION

  • WHAT IS A HEART ATTACK?

    • HEART ATTACK

      • FAILURE OF THE HEART TO FUNCTION PROPERLY; DUE TO LACK OF OXYGEN BEING DELIVERED TO CARDIAC CELLS

    • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

      • DISEASES OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS; ACCOUNTS FOR 40% OF ALL DEATHS IN U.S.

    • ATHERIOSCLEROSIS

      • GROWTH OF PLAQUE DEVELOPS ON THE INNER WALLS OF THE ARTERIES, NARROWING THE PASSAGES THROUGH WHICH BLOOD CAN FLOW


Circulation16

CIRCULATION

  • BLOOD EXERTS PRESSURE ON VESSEL WALLS

    • BLOOD PRESSURE

      • THE FORCE THAT BLOOD EXERTS AGAINST THE WALLS OF OUR BLOOD VESSELS

    • PULSE

      • THE RHYTHMIC STRETCHING OFTHE ARTERIES


Circulation17

CIRCULATION

  • MEASURING BLOOD PRESSURE CAN REVEAL CARDIOVASCULAR PROBLEMS

    • HYPERTENSION

      • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE; MAY INDICATE A SEVERE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE


Circulation18

CIRCULATION

  • SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTROLS THE DISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD

    • SPHINCTERS EXIST THAT LIMIT BLOOD FLOW THROUGH CAPILLARY BEDS IF BLOOD IS NOT NEEDED IN THOSE AREAS (EX. DIGESTIVE TRACT DURING EXERCISE)


Circulation19

CIRCULATION

  • CAPILLARIES ALLOW THE TRANSFER OF SUBSTANCES THROUGH THEIR WALLS

    • THE THIN WALLS MAKE THIS THE ONLY VESSEL WHERE TRANSFER OF SUBSTANCES CAN TAKE PLACE


Circulation20

CIRCULATION

  • BLOOD CONSISTS OF CELLS SUSPENDED IN PLASMA


Circulation21

CIRCULATION

  • BLOOD CONSISTS OF CELLS SUSPENDED IN PLASMA

    • ADULT HUMAN ON AVERAGE HAS 4 – 6 LITERS OF BLOOD

    • 4 PARTS TO BLOOD

      • PLASMA

      • RED BLOOD CELLS

      • WHITE BLOOD CELLS

      • PLATELETS


Circulation22

CIRCULATION

  • PLASMA

    • LIQUID MADE UP OF 90% WATER, 10% INORGANIC SALTS

      • 55% OF BLOOD IS PLASMA

      • WORKS TO MAINTAIN OSMOTIC BALANCE AND PH


Circulation23

CIRCULATION

  • RED BLOOD CELLS

    • A.K.A. ERYTHROCYTES

    • MOST NUMEROUS BLOOD CELLS

    • LACK NUCLEI AND MITOCHONDRIA

    • FORMED IN BONE MARROW

    • CYCLE FOR 3-4 MONTHS BEFORE BROKEN DOWN AND RECYCLED IN THE LIVER

    • *ANEMIA*

      • AN ABNORMALLY LOW AMOUNT OF HEMOGLOBIN OR A LOW NUMBER OF RED BLOOD CELLS


Circulation24

CIRCULATION

  • WHITE BLOOD CELLS

    • A.K.A. LEUKOCYTES

    • HELP DEFEND THE BODY

    • 5 TYPES

      • BASOPHILS

        • RELEASE CHEMICALS TO FIGHT INFECTION

      • NEUTROPHILS

        • PHAGOCYTES

      • MONOCYTES

        • PHAGOCYTES

      • EOSINOPHILS

        • KILL PARASITIC WORMS, HELP REDUCE ALLERGIES; NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND

      • LYMPHOCYTES

        • KEY CELL IN IMMUNITY

    • WILL DISCUSS IN MORE DETAIL DURING “IMMUNE SYSTEM”


Circulation25

CIRCULATION

  • PLATELETS

    • BITS OF CYTOPLASM PINCHED OFF FROM LARGE CELLS IN THE BONE MARROW

    • IMPORTANT IN BLOOD CLOTTING


Circulation26

CIRCULATION

  • BLOOD CLOTTING

    • PLATELETS AND THE PLASMA PROTEIN FIBRINOGEN ACT AS SEALANTS

    • PROTHROMBIN IS CONVERTED TO THROMBIN WHICH CONVERTS FIBRINOGEN TO FIBRIN

      • FIBRIN

        • THREAD-LIKE PROTEIN THAT TRAPS BLOOD CELLS; FORMING PATCH UNTIL CONNECTIVE TISSUE CAN HEAL

    • CLOTTING MECHANISM DEFECTS CAN BE SERIOUS

      • HEMOPHILIA

      • THROMBOSIS CLOTS WHEN THERE IS NO INJURY


Circulation27

CIRCULATION

  • STEM CELLS OFFER A POTENTIAL CURE FOR LEUKEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD CELL DISEASES

    • STEM CELLS

      • UNSPECIALIZED CELLS

    • LEUKEMIA

      • CANCER OF THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS (LEUKOCYTES)


Circulation28

CIRCULATION

  • SPEAKING OF DISEASES…HOW DOES THE HUMAN BODY PROTECT ITSELF??

  • THE IMMUNESYSTEM IS NEXT!!!


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