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CIRCULATION. CIRCULATION. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ASSOCIATES INTIMATELY WITH ALL BODY TISSUES CIRCULATORY SYSTEM A SYSTEM OF INTERNAL TRANSPORT; TRANSPORTS OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE, DISTRIBUTES NUTRIENTS TO BODY CELLS, AND CONVEYS THE WASTE PRODUCTS OF METABOLISM TO SPECIFIC SITES FOR DISPOSAL.

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circulation1
CIRCULATION
  • THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ASSOCIATES INTIMATELY WITH ALL BODY TISSUES
    • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
      • A SYSTEM OF INTERNAL TRANSPORT; TRANSPORTS OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE, DISTRIBUTES NUTRIENTS TO BODY CELLS, AND CONVEYS THE WASTE PRODUCTS OF METABOLISM TO SPECIFIC SITES FOR DISPOSAL
circulation2
CIRCULATION
  • SEVERAL TYPES OF INTERNAL TRANSPORT HAVE EVOLVED IN ANIMALS
    • SIMPLE ANIMALS HAVE NO TRUE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (WHY DON’T THEY NEED ONE??)
      • EX. HYDRA
    • BLOOD
      • SPECIALIZED CIRCULATORY FLUID FOUND IN MORE COMPLEX ANIMALS
    • TWO BASIC TYPES OF SYSTEMS
      • OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
      • CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
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CIRCULATION
  • TWO BASIC TYPES OF SYSTEMS
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CIRCULATION
  • TWO BASIC TYPES OF SYSTEMS
    • OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
      • BLOOD LEAVES THE VESSELS AND BATH THE CELLS DIRECTLY (EX. GRASSHOPPER)
    • CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (A.K.A. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM)
      • CONSISTS OF A HEART AND TUBE-LIKE VESSELS; THE BLOOD IS ALWAYS CONFINED TO THESE VESSELS (EX. FISH, HUMANS)
circulation5
CIRCULATION
  • CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    • THREE KINDS OF VESSELS
      • ARTERIES
        • CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART
        • ARTERIOLES  SMALL VESSELS, OFF ARTERIES, THAT GIVE RISE TO CAPILLARIES
      • VEINS
        • CARRY BLOOD TO THE HEART
        • VENULES  RESULT OF CONVERGING CAPILLARIES THAT EVENTUALLY FORM VEINS
      • CAPILLARIES
        • CONVEY BLOOD BETWEEN ARTERIES AND VEINS WITHIN EACH ORGAN
        • CAPILLARY BEDS  NETWORKS OF CAPILLARIES THAT INFILTRATE EVERY ORGAN AND TISSUE IN THE BODY
circulation6
CIRCULATION
  • VERTEBRATE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS REFLECT EVOLUTION
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CIRCULATION
  • VERTEBRATE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS
    • PULMONARY CIRCUIT
      • CARRIES BLOOD BETWEEN THE HEART AND THE GAS EXCHANGE TISSUES IN THE LUNGS
    • SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
      • CARRIES BLOOD BETWEEN THE HEART AND THE REST OF THE BODY
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CIRCULATION
  • HUMAN HEART AND CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM TYPIFY THOSE OF MAMMALS
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CIRCULATION
  • FOLLOWING THE PATH OF BLOOD
    • RIGHT VENTRICLE
    • *PULMONARY ARTERIES*
    • CAPILLARIES IN LUNGS
    • *PULMONARY VEIN*
    • LEFT ATRIUM
    • LEFT VENTRICLE
    • AORTA
    • ARTERIES BRANCH OFF AORTA
    • SUPERIOR VENA CAVA / INFERIOR VENA CAVA
    • RIGHT ATRIUM
    • *VAVA L VAVA*
circulation10
CIRCULATION
  • THE STRUCTURE OF BLOOD VESSELS FITS THEIR FUNCTION
    • ARTERIES
      • THICKEST
    • VEINS
      • VALVES
    • CAPILLARIES
      • THINNEST
circulation11
CIRCULATION
  • THE HEART CONTRACTS AND RELAXES RHYTHMICALLY
    • CARDIAC CYCLE
      • A COMPLETE SEQUENCE OF FILLING AND PUMPING OF THE HEART
      • DIASTOLE
        • ENTIRE HEART IS RELAXED; BLOODFLOWS INTO ALL FOUR CHAMBERS
          • AV VALVES ARE OPEN,ALLOWING BLOOD TO GOFROM ATRIUM TO VENTRICLES
      • SYSTOLE
        • BRIEF CONTRACTION THAT FORCESALL BLOOD INTO VENTRICLES (0.1 SEC)
        • VENTRICLES CONTRACT FOR ABOUT0.3 SEC, CLOSING AV VALVES AND OPENINGSEMI-LUNAR VALVES WHICH PUMPS BLOOD INTO ARTERIES
circulation12
CIRCULATION
  • THE HEART CONTRACTS AND RELAXES RHYTHMICALLY
    • CARDIAC OUTPUT
      • THE VOLUME OF BLOOD PERMINUTE THAT THE LEFTVENTRICLE PUMPS INTO THESYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
    • VALVES PREVENT BACKFLOWAND KEEP BLOOD FLOWINGIN RIGHT DIRECTION
      • RESPONSIBLE FOR “LUB-DUB”SOUND HEART MAKES
      • WHEN DEFECTIVE, RESULTS INA MURMUR
        • EXTRA HEART SOUNDS
circulation13
CIRCULATION
  • THE PACEMAKER SETS THE TEMPO OF THE HEARTBEAT
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CIRCULATION
  • THE PACEMAKER SETS THE TEMPO OF THE HEARTBEAT
    • PACEMAKER  A.K.A. SA (SINOATRIAL) NODE; SPECIALIZED REGION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE THAT MAINTAINS THE HEARTS PUMPING RHYTHYM BY SETTING THE RATE AT WHICH ALL THE MUSCLE CELLS OF THE HEART CONTRACT
      • PACEMAKER GENERATES ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
      • SIGNALS SPREAD THROUGHOUT ATRIA; 0.1 SEC TO REACH AV (ATRIOVENTRICULAR) NODE
      • SPECIALIZED MUSCLE FIBERS RELAY SIGNALS AND CAUSE VENTRICLE CONTRACTION THAT PUMPS BLOOD
    • ARTIFICIAL PACEMAKER
      • A TINY ELECTRONIC DEVICE SURGICALLY IMPLANTED NEAR THE AV NODE; EMIT ELECTRICAL SIGNALS THAT TRIGGER NORMAL HEARTBEATS
circulation15
CIRCULATION
  • WHAT IS A HEART ATTACK?
    • HEART ATTACK
      • FAILURE OF THE HEART TO FUNCTION PROPERLY; DUE TO LACK OF OXYGEN BEING DELIVERED TO CARDIAC CELLS
    • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
      • DISEASES OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS; ACCOUNTS FOR 40% OF ALL DEATHS IN U.S.
    • ATHERIOSCLEROSIS
      • GROWTH OF PLAQUE DEVELOPS ON THE INNER WALLS OF THE ARTERIES, NARROWING THE PASSAGES THROUGH WHICH BLOOD CAN FLOW
circulation16
CIRCULATION
  • BLOOD EXERTS PRESSURE ON VESSEL WALLS
    • BLOOD PRESSURE
      • THE FORCE THAT BLOOD EXERTS AGAINST THE WALLS OF OUR BLOOD VESSELS
    • PULSE
      • THE RHYTHMIC STRETCHING OFTHE ARTERIES
circulation17
CIRCULATION
  • MEASURING BLOOD PRESSURE CAN REVEAL CARDIOVASCULAR PROBLEMS
    • HYPERTENSION
      • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE; MAY INDICATE A SEVERE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
circulation18
CIRCULATION
  • SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTROLS THE DISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD
    • SPHINCTERS EXIST THAT LIMIT BLOOD FLOW THROUGH CAPILLARY BEDS IF BLOOD IS NOT NEEDED IN THOSE AREAS (EX. DIGESTIVE TRACT DURING EXERCISE)
circulation19
CIRCULATION
  • CAPILLARIES ALLOW THE TRANSFER OF SUBSTANCES THROUGH THEIR WALLS
    • THE THIN WALLS MAKE THIS THE ONLY VESSEL WHERE TRANSFER OF SUBSTANCES CAN TAKE PLACE
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CIRCULATION
  • BLOOD CONSISTS OF CELLS SUSPENDED IN PLASMA
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CIRCULATION
  • BLOOD CONSISTS OF CELLS SUSPENDED IN PLASMA
    • ADULT HUMAN ON AVERAGE HAS 4 – 6 LITERS OF BLOOD
    • 4 PARTS TO BLOOD
      • PLASMA
      • RED BLOOD CELLS
      • WHITE BLOOD CELLS
      • PLATELETS
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CIRCULATION
  • PLASMA
    • LIQUID MADE UP OF 90% WATER, 10% INORGANIC SALTS
      • 55% OF BLOOD IS PLASMA
      • WORKS TO MAINTAIN OSMOTIC BALANCE AND PH
circulation23
CIRCULATION
  • RED BLOOD CELLS
    • A.K.A. ERYTHROCYTES
    • MOST NUMEROUS BLOOD CELLS
    • LACK NUCLEI AND MITOCHONDRIA
    • FORMED IN BONE MARROW
    • CYCLE FOR 3-4 MONTHS BEFORE BROKEN DOWN AND RECYCLED IN THE LIVER
    • *ANEMIA*
      • AN ABNORMALLY LOW AMOUNT OF HEMOGLOBIN OR A LOW NUMBER OF RED BLOOD CELLS
circulation24
CIRCULATION
  • WHITE BLOOD CELLS
    • A.K.A. LEUKOCYTES
    • HELP DEFEND THE BODY
    • 5 TYPES
      • BASOPHILS
        • RELEASE CHEMICALS TO FIGHT INFECTION
      • NEUTROPHILS
        • PHAGOCYTES
      • MONOCYTES
        • PHAGOCYTES
      • EOSINOPHILS
        • KILL PARASITIC WORMS, HELP REDUCE ALLERGIES; NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND
      • LYMPHOCYTES
        • KEY CELL IN IMMUNITY
    • WILL DISCUSS IN MORE DETAIL DURING “IMMUNE SYSTEM”
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CIRCULATION
  • PLATELETS
    • BITS OF CYTOPLASM PINCHED OFF FROM LARGE CELLS IN THE BONE MARROW
    • IMPORTANT IN BLOOD CLOTTING
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CIRCULATION
  • BLOOD CLOTTING
    • PLATELETS AND THE PLASMA PROTEIN FIBRINOGEN ACT AS SEALANTS
    • PROTHROMBIN IS CONVERTED TO THROMBIN WHICH CONVERTS FIBRINOGEN TO FIBRIN
      • FIBRIN
        • THREAD-LIKE PROTEIN THAT TRAPS BLOOD CELLS; FORMING PATCH UNTIL CONNECTIVE TISSUE CAN HEAL
    • CLOTTING MECHANISM DEFECTS CAN BE SERIOUS
      • HEMOPHILIA
      • THROMBOSIS CLOTS WHEN THERE IS NO INJURY
circulation27
CIRCULATION
  • STEM CELLS OFFER A POTENTIAL CURE FOR LEUKEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD CELL DISEASES
    • STEM CELLS
      • UNSPECIALIZED CELLS
    • LEUKEMIA
      • CANCER OF THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS (LEUKOCYTES)
circulation28
CIRCULATION
  • SPEAKING OF DISEASES…HOW DOES THE HUMAN BODY PROTECT ITSELF??
  • THE IMMUNESYSTEM IS NEXT!!!
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