Chapter 21
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Chapter 21. Processes Used to Separate Wood Materials. Objectives. Edged tools Planers and surfacers Lathes Sawing Drills and boring machines. Introduction.

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Chapter 21

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Chapter 21

Chapter 21

Processes Used to Separate Wood Materials


Objectives

Objectives

  • Edged tools

  • Planers and surfacers

  • Lathes

  • Sawing

  • Drills and boring machines


Introduction

Introduction

  • There are 9 major types of processes used in manufacturing wood products: planing, jointing, shaping, routing, turning, sawing, drilling, boring, and mortising and tenoning.


Planing

Planing

  • Planing or surfacing is a process that mills wood to a uniform thickness and produces a smooth surface.

  • There are 3 major types of machines used for planing: knife blade planer, abrasive belt planer, and jointer.

  • The jointer is the preferred machine from removing stock from the edges of boards.

  • The abrasive bed planer is a safer machine than the knife bed planer. They are used in furniture manufacturing. They have heavy sanding belts.


Shaping

Shaping

  • Shaper is used for producing intricate shapes required for molding or window framing.

  • Shapers produce straight line or design patterns along the length of the stock.

  • Often special purpose wooden guides or fences are fastened to the shaper table.


Routing

Routing

  • The router is used to add simple round or decorative shapes to the corners of stock, tables, and counter tops.

  • Routers are popular in the furniture making and boat building industries.

  • CNC routers are often used when a number of identical parts are required.


Turning

Turning

  • Turning on a wood lathe is removing stock using a lathe tool called a chisel.

  • Chisels come in six different shapes: gouge, skew, parting tool, diamond point, round nose, and square nose tool (fig 21-13, page 313).

  • Initial turning operation is called roughing. It is done at low speeds of 1000 rpm or less.


Sawing

Sawing

  • Saw cuts made across the grain are referred to as crosscut sawing.

  • Cuts made in the direction of the grain are referred to as rip sawing.

  • Circular saw blades are used for most of the machine powered saws: portable circular saws, radial arm saws, cutofff saws and panel saws.


Drilling

Drilling

  • Machine drilling, or boring, of holes in wood is normally done with a drill press or a boring machine.

  • The tools that are used to produce holes are called (drill) bits.

  • To ensure accurate and safe operation, the work piece is held securely in a fixture bolted to the table of the drill press.


Boring

Boring

  • In the furniture making industry, holes are often bored for inserting dowels (wooden connecting pegs) in parts such as drawers or shelves.

  • Multi spindle boring machines (enables more than one hole to be bored at a time) are normally available in sizes of up to 6 feet long.

  • There may be as many as 20 spindles on large production machines.


Mortising and tenoning

Mortising and Tenoning

  • Mortise and tenon joints, with one piece chiseled to fit into a slot cut into a slot in another, are the mark of fine furniture (fig 21-24, page 319).

  • Most furniture joints are secured with screws, dowels, or biscuits (flat discs).

  • Screws provide the weakest joint, and dowels create a loose joint through expansion and contraction.


Summary

Summary

  • There are 9 major types of processes used in manufacturing wood products: planing, jointing, shaping, routing, turning, sawing, drilling, boring, and mortising and tenoning.

  • Planing or surfacing is a process that mills wood to a uniform thickness and produces a smooth surface.

  • Shaper is used for producing intricate shapes required for molding or window framing.

  • Machine drilling, or boring, of holes in wood is normally done with a drill press or a boring machine.

  • Mortise and tenon joints, with one piece chiseled to fit into a slot cut into a slot in another, are the mark of fine furniture.


Home work

Home Work

  • 1. What is planing?

  • 2. What is a shaper used for?

  • 3. What are mortise and tenon joints?


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