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GEO600: The First Application of Squeezed Light. Roman Schnabel, for the GEO600 group, the Quantum Interferometry Group, and the LSC Albert-Einstein-Institut (AEI) Institut für Gravitationsphysik Leibniz Universität Hannover. Outline. Introduction to Squeezed Light

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Geo600 the first application of squeezed light

GEO600: The First Application of Squeezed Light

Roman Schnabel, for the GEO600 group, the Quantum Interferometry Group, and the LSC

Albert-Einstein-Institut (AEI)

Institut für Gravitationsphysik

Leibniz Universität Hannover


Outline
Outline

  • Introduction to Squeezed Light

  • The first squeezed-light laser for GW detectors

  • Sensitivity improvement of GEO600 with squeezed light

  • Squeezed light as a key-technology for GW astronomy


Gravitational waves
Gravitational Waves

h:

Gravitational wave astronomy requires observatories that can detect

h < 10-23

(over a band from e.g. 100Hz - 200Hz)

  • Merging neutron stars. Numerical relativity simulation of gravitational waves emitted from two neutron stars which are about to merge in 4 ms [Rezzolla, AEI].

3


Gravitational wave detection

Mirror 1

Mirror 2

Laser

50% Beam splitter

Photo diode

Gravitational Wave Detection

1) Test masses

> km

2) Laser light

3) Interference

Photo-electric current

modulated at GW frequency

4) Photo-electric effect

4


Photo electric current

N

Photo-Electric Current

(No signal, but photon shot noise)

Photons per time interval

Time intervals

5


Photo electric current1

N

Photo-Electric Current

(GW signal?)

Photons per time interval

Time intervals

6


Photon counting statistics
Photon Counting Statistics

Coherent state

Relative shot-noise

Probability [rel. units]

Photon number N

7


Increasing the light power

Heating by light absorption

Photo diode

Increasing the Light Power

Mirror 1

Power-recycling mirror

High power laser

Mirror 2

Photo-electric current

8


Yes, by squeezed laser light!

9


Shot noise in an interferometer
Shot-Noise in an Interferometer noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

Mirror

Beam splitter

Laser

Due to zero point fluctuations

(vacuum noise)

Photo

diode

[Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981)]

10


Squeezing the shot noise
Squeezing the Shot-Noise noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

Mirror

C. M. Caves (1981):

Reduction of quantum noise with squeezed light

Beam splitter

Laser

Squeezed

light laser

Faraday

Rotator

Photo

diode

[Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981)]

11


Squeezed counting statistics
“Squeezed” Counting Statistics noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

Squeezing factor: 10 dB

Noise squeezing

Probability [rel. units]

Squeezing factor: 3 dB

Photon number N

12


Photo electric current2

N noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

Photo-Electric Current

(No signal)

Photons per time interval

Time intervals

13


Photo electric current squeezed

N noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

Photo-Electric Current - Squeezed

Squeezing the noise of a random process without a measurement!?

Quantum mechanics:

Squeezing requires time/energy (and amplitude/phase quadrature) entangled photons

Photons per time interval

Time intervals

14


Squeezing in the wave picture
Squeezing in the Wave Picture noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

X1

Quadrature squeezing at sideband frequency W1

+

+

Wc-W1

+

Wc+W1

Wc

X2

W

+

15


The geo600 squeezed light laser
The GEO600 Squeezed Light Laser noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

16


Generation of squeezed light pdc
Generation of Squeezed Light (PDC) noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

c2-nonlinear crystal:

MgO:LiNbO3

Pump field input

(cw, 532nm)

Squeezed field output

(cw, 1064nm) by parametric down-conversion (PDC)

Standing wave cavity

17


History of squeezed light generation
History of Squeezed Light Generation noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

First squeezed light: [Slusher et al., PRL 55, 2409 (1985)]

Research labs with squeezed light (not complete):

  • Kimble (CalTech): teleportation: [Furuzawa et al., SCIENCE 282, 706 (1998)]

  • Grangier (Orsay); kitten: [Ourjoumtsev et al., SCIENCE, 312, 83 (2006)]

  • Schiller and Mlynek (Konstanz): tomography: [Nature 387, 471 (1997).]

  • Bachor and Lam (Canberra): 6dB at 1064nm [J. Opt. B 1, 469 (1999).]

  • Leuchs (Erlangen); ~7 dB pulsed [Opt. Lett. 33, 116 (2008).]

  • Polzik (Copenhagen), [Neergaard-Nielsen et al., PRL 97, 083604 (2006)]

  • Furusawa (Tokyo); 9 dB: [Takeno et al., Opt. Express 15, 4321 (2007).]

  • Fabre (Paris), Zhang, Peng (Shanxi);

  • Andersen (Copenhagen); Mavalvala (MIT),...

18


History of squeezed light generation1
History of Squeezed Light Generation noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

Research & development towards the first application of squeezed light

  • McClelland (ANU), power-recycling [McKenzie et al., PRL 88, 231102 (2002)]

  • McClelland (ANU), audio-band [McKenzie et al., PRL 93, 161105 (2004)]

  • RS (LUH), signal-recycling [Vahlbruch et al., PRL 95, 211102 (2005)]

  • RS (LUH), control scheme [Vahlbruch et al., PRL 97, 011101 (2006)]

  • RS (LUH), full band-width [Vahlbruch et al., New Journal of Phys. 9, 371 (2007)]

  • Mavalvala (MIT), suspended mirrors [Goda et al., Nature Phys. 4, 472 (2008)]

  • RS (LUH), 10dB [Vahlbruch et al., PRL 100, 033602 (2008)]

  • RS (LUH), turn-key source [Vahlbruch et al., CQG 27, 084027 (2010)]

  • Recent review:

  • [R.S. et al., Nature Comm. 1:121 doi: 10.1038/ncomms1122 (2010)]

  • 19


    Transport to the geo600 gw detector
    Transport to the GEO600 GW Detector noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

    20


    Geo600 squeezed light in application
    GEO600: Squeezed Light in Application noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

    Observatory noise

    without squeezed light

    With squeezed light


    Squeezing the shot noise sn and the radiation pressure noise prn
    Squeezing the Shot-Noise (SN) noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?and the Radiation Pressure Noise (PRN)

    [Jaekel and Reynaud,

    Europhys. Lett. 13, 301 (1990)]

    Laser

    Filter cavities

    Faraday

    Rotator

    Squeezed

    light laser

    [Kimble et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 022002 (2001)]

    22


    Squeezing sn and rpn

    QND-Regime noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

    Squeezing SN and RPN

    [Jaekel, Reynaud 1990]

    Shot noise

    Squeezed Light Input

    (8dB)

    Radiation pressure noise

    (SQL)


    Summary
    Summary noise–ratio without increasing the laser power?

    • GEO600 now uses squeezed light and achieves its best ever sensitivity (at shot-noise limited frequencies)

    • A real application of entangled photons in squeezed light has been realized

    • Squeezing is mature and might become a key-technology in all future GW observatories, such as ET


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