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Infant and Toddler Development Part 4: 18-36 Months. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service November 18, 2008 10:00-11:30 a.m. Debbie Richardson, M.S. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University. Introduction.

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Infant and Toddler Development Part 4: 18-36 Months

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Infant and toddler development part 4 18 36 months

Infant and Toddler DevelopmentPart 4: 18-36 Months

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension ServiceCore In-Service November 18, 2008 10:00-11:30 a.m.

Debbie Richardson, M.S.

Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist

Human Development & Family Science

Oklahoma State University

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


Introduction

Introduction

Welcome

Centra Instructions

Overview of In-service

Resource Materials

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


In service objective

In-Service Objective

Extension Educators will be able to

describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of toddlers from 18 through 36 months including physical, cognitive, social and emotional development.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson


18 20 months 1 years

18-20 Months(1 ½ Years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


18 20 months

18-20 Months

Cognition

  • Demonstrates functional use of objects toward objects.

  • Appropriately uses most common objects & toys.

  • Images & words associated with familiar objects.

  • More tool use emerging.

  • May find hidden toys/objects.

  • Nests 2-3 cups.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


18 20 months1

18-20 Months

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Recognizes self in mirror.

  • Autosymbolic play – pretends basic tasks.

  • Problem-solving through symbolic combinations.

  • Begins spontaneous symbolic play.

  • Places circles and squares in a foam board.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


18 20 months2

18-20 Months

Language

  • Vocabulary spurt.

  • Uses lots of gestures with words to get needs met (pointing, taking you by the hand).

  • Uses at least 4 different consonants in babbling words.

  • Beginning true verbal communication; words following functional & semantic relations.

  • Names an object or picture; points to pictures of familiar objects (2-5) upon request.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


18 20 months3

18-20 Months

Language (cont’d)

  • Says several single words; starting to combine words (all gone; more milk, daddy go, etc.).

  • Says “what’s that?” to elicit object names.

  • Repeats words overheard in conversation.

  • Comprehends 50+ words. Understands most words you use.

  • Can say about 15 words.

  • Points to 3 body parts on self.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


18 20 months4

18-20 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Plays alone with toys about 5+ minutes.

  • Shows toy preferences. Play varies with one toy.

  • Plays independently in company of peers.

  • Imitates another child at play.

  • Enjoys having simple stories read.

  • Fears: separation from parent, toliet, injury, strangers

  • Strong wish for independence. Sometimes says ‘no’.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


18 20 months5

18-20 Months

Gross Motor

  • Walks without using arms for balance.

  • Climbs/steps up & down stairs with some assistance.

  • Throws ball toward intended direction, up to 3 feet.

  • Walks into ball; Kicks ball forward.

  • Trots or walks fast; running stiffly.

  • Stand on one foot while hands are held.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


18 20 months6

18-20 Months

Fine Motor

  • Towers 3-4 blocks.

  • Turns single pages of cardboard book.

  • Uses spoon; feeds self pretty well.

  • Drinks from open cup independently with minimal spilling.

  • Cooperates with tooth brushing;wash & dry hands.

  • Removes simple articles of clothing without help.

  • Pulls apart snap beads.

  • Imitates a vertical stroke.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months approaching 2 years

21-24 Months(approaching 2 years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months

21-24 Months

Cognition

  • Mentally remembers object and figures out where it went.

  • Brings object from another room on request.

  • Symbolic play extends beyond child’s self.

  • Performs pretend activities on more than one person or object.

  • Follows directions; generally unable to remember rules.

  • Distinguishes between food and non-food substances.

  • Completes 3 piece form board.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months1

21-24 Months

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Stacks & knocks down blocks; fills then turns over container to dump out.

  • Nests 3-4 cups.

  • Combines 2 objects in play.

  • Attempts to mend a broken toy.

  • Representational play – daily experiences such as playing house; plays with dolls.

  • Events short and isolated; no true sequence.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months2

21-24 Months

Language

  • Uses sentence of 2-3 words.

  • Names 2-3 objectsor pictures.

  • Follows simple commands/instructions without gestures.

  • Repeats words.

  • May refer to objects or persons not present.

  • Identifies & points to 3-5 body parts on self when asked.

  • Uses “please” and “thank you” if prompted.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months3

21-24 Months

Language (cont’d)

  • Beginning word combinations with meaning.

  • Uses animal sounds or names them.

  • Responds to yes/no questions with head shake.

  • Talks to self & jabbers expressively.

  • Hums, tries to sing.

  • Listens to short rhymes, finger plays.

  • Enjoys looking at picture books.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months4

21-24 Months

Says 8-10 + words; pronunciation may be unclear.

Uses about 40-50 words. Correctly pronounces most vowels, add’l consonants. Begins to use other speech sounds. May be able to use prepositions.

Phrases & short sentences. Adding grammatical elements. Able to speak & be understood about ½ the time.

Vocabulary of several hundred words.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months5

21-24 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Same fears continue through age 2 - separation from parent, toilet, injury, strangers – and may expand.

  • Separation anxiety may be fading, but still ‘shy’ around strangers.

  • May become increasingly enthusiastic about company of other children; engages in parallel play.

  • Make-believe play; enjoys role-playing.

  • Imitates behavior and past events.

  • Increasing attention span.

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21 24 months6

21-24 Months

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Helps in simple household tasks.

  • Picks up & puts away toys on request.

  • Understanding of own autonomy; shows independent behavior; wants “my way”; likes to boss others.

  • Usually responds to correction; stops behavior.

  • Defends possessions; expresses ownership; doesn’t understand sharing.

  • Finds it difficult to wait; wants things right now.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months7

21-24 Months

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Communicates needs such as thirst, hunger, bathroom.

  • Shows sympathy to other children; may try to comfort.

  • Likes to please others; afraid of disapproval & rejection; enjoys adult attention.

  • May show anger by slapping, biting, and hitting.

  • Sometimes stubborn and defiant; says “it’s mine”, “go away”, “I don’t like it”, “no” a lot.

  • Gets angry sometimes and has temper tantrums.

  • Refers to self by name.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months8

21-24 Months

Gross Motor

  • Good balance & coordination.

  • Steps up and down stairs without assistance.

  • Runs with better coordination, about 10 ft. w/out falling.

  • Climbs onto and down from furniture unsupported.

  • Jumps down step with 1 foot forward with assistance.

  • Jumps up 2” with both feet together.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months9

21-24 Months

Gross Motor (cont’d)

  • Can kick ball without losing balance.

  • Tosses or rolls large ball; can throw ball into a basket.

  • Bends over to pick up toy without falling.

  • Enjoys sitting on & moving small-wheeled riding toys.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months10

21-24 Months

Fine Motor

  • May be showing hand preference.

  • Unzips/zips large zippers.

  • Eats with a fork.

  • Places 4 stacking rings in any order.

  • Towers 6-8 blocks.

  • Browse through a book 1 page at a time.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


21 24 months11

21-24 Months

Fine Motor (cont’d)

  • Imitates horizontal stroke; scribbles spontaneously.

  • Snips paper with scissors.

  • Strings 1” bead with strong tip.

  • Attempts to put on shoes & slippers.

  • Attempts to open door by turning knob.

  • Opens cabinets, drawers, boxes.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


2 years

2 Years

Physical Markers

  • About 22 to 38 lbs. (ave. 28 lbs.)

  • Height is about ½ total height the child will attain as an adult – about 32 to 38” tall.

  • Approx. first 16 teeth have appeared.

  • Vision fully developed.

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25 30 months 2 2 years

25-30 Months(2–2 ½ Years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months

25- 30 Months

Cognitive

  • Represent reality to themselves through use of symbols, mental images, words, gestures.

  • Objects & events no longer have to be present to be thought about.

  • Often fail to distinguish their point of view from others.

  • Easily captured by surface appearances.

  • Often confused about causal relations.

  • The above points last until about 6 years old.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months1

25- 30 Months

Cognitive (cont’d)

  • Can see how things are same or different.

  • Matches objects; matches 4 colors.

  • Identifies objects by their use.

  • Recalls geometric shapes.

  • Completes 3-6 piece inset puzzle.

  • Understands the concept of ‘one’, then ‘two’.

  • Engages in simple make-believe play.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months2

25- 30 Months

Cognitive (cont’d)

  • Can pay attention to only one thing at a time.

  • Represents/recalls events less frequently experienced or observed, particularly impressive or traumatic events.

  • Plays doctor, store, shopping, teacher, mom/dad, child.

  • Roles shift quickly; events still short & isolated.

  • Realistic props required.

  • Matches object to a picture in a book.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months3

25- 30 Months

Cognitive (cont’d)

  • Curious what things are, what they do, how they work.

  • Begins making mechanical toys work.

  • Expands knowledge or shape/color.

  • Knows spatial concepts such as ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘under’, ‘up/down’.

  • Notices what comes “first, next, last” when routines are followed; doesn’t like changes in schedule – confusing.

  • Knows mostly where things are located in and around house.

  • Begins to reason from one situation to another similar situation.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years1

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Language

  • Names 5 pictures.

  • Recognizes action in pictures.

  • Begins to use pronouns (I, you, me, we, they).

  • Says “me”, “mine”, “no” a lot.

  • May use action words such as go, run, look, eat.

  • Begins to understand many sentences.

  • Combines 3-4 words.

  • Uses 50+ words.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years2

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Language (cont’d)

  • May be able to identify friend by naming.

  • Speaks clearly most of the time.

  • Uses plurals and pronouns.

  • Identifies objects or pictures by use.

  • Asks a question using inflection.

  • Gets excited about books, songs, & conversation.

  • May repeat numbers but can’t count.

  • Knows descriptive words such as ‘big’, ‘happy’

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25 30 months 2 2 years3

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Language (cont’d)

  • Asks ‘why’, “what”, “where” questions.

  • Responds appropriately to ‘why’ questions regarding routine activities.

  • Can tell 2-3 sentences about an activity.

  • Can use 2 adjectives.

  • Knows name, age, gender.

  • Names 6-8 body parts.

  • Conversational.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years4

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Social-Emotional

  • Pretends to be engaged in familiar activities or other events using toys as props.

  • May ‘help’ with simple household tasks.

  • Imitates adults & peers.

  • Fears include: loud noises, animals, dark rooms, separation from parent, large objects/machines, change in personal environment.

  • Shows affection.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years5

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Greets familiar adults spontaneously.

  • Readily expresses wide range of emotion

  • Quick mood changes.

  • Sense of self; positive or negative self-worth.

  • Periods of strong independence; often stubborn, bossy, wants own way.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years6

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Playing more with other children.

  • May poke, push, pull in awkward attempt to make friends.

  • Waits his/her turn.

  • Sometimes shares toys with others when prompted.

  • Starts to understand ‘mine’ vs. ‘his/hers’ or ‘yours’.

  • Doesn’t understand others have feelings.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years7

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Gross Motor

  • Runs easily.

  • Stands/walks on tiptoes.

  • Stands on one foot momentarily without assistance.

  • Throws a ball 5 feet with direction.

  • Jumps off the ground; may jump broadly (across).

  • Walks up/down stairs alone, first placing both feet on each step with minimal assistance, then in a step-to-step manner without assistance.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years8

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Gross Motor (cont’d)

  • Demonstrates overall coordination and balancing.

  • Stoops, squats, bends over to pick up something without falling.

  • Walks 2+ steps on a line alternating feet.

  • Pedaling.

  • Climbs well; may need help getting down.

  • Likes rough & tumble play.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years9

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Fine Motor

  • Feeds self independently with utensils with little spilling.

  • Drinks from cup, eventually with one hand.

  • Takes off clothes; puts on simple clothing without help.

  • Washes/dries hands and brushes teeth with minimal assistance.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


25 30 months 2 2 years10

25-30 Months(2- 2 ½ Years)

Fine Motor (cont’d)

  • Separates 4 snap beads.

  • Builds tower of 3-4 then up to 9 blocks.

  • Removes cap from bottle; screws/unscrews jar lids, nuts, bolts.

  • Turns rotating handles.

  • Turns 1-3 pages of paper book.

  • Draws

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years

31-36 Months(2 ½-3 Years)

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years1

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Cognition

  • Engages in functional play – simple, repetitive activities.

  • Gender identity develops.

  • Begins to understand big & little; relationship between part & whole (door of car, nose of animal).

  • Selects toy hidden in correct hand when put behind back.

  • Points/names a color; may recognize 3 colors.

  • Matches 3 shapes; stacks 4-5 rings in order.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years2

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Counts 3 objects.

  • Completes simple puzzles.

  • Makes mechanical toys work.

  • Continues pretend activities.

  • Play starts having a sequence; sequences evolve and are not planned; events are not isolated.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years3

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Compensatory stories: re-enactment of experiences, events with new outcomes.

  • Associative play: loosely organized around a common activity, shared interests & materials.

  • Reasons from effect back to cause.

  • Understands before, after, now, soon, later

  • Expanding attention span – up to about 10 min.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years4

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Language

  • Very talkative. Vocabulary of many hundreds of words (200-800).

  • Speech is more accurate; may still leave off ending sounds, stumble or stutter when trying to express self.

  • Recognizes/identifies most common objects & pictures.

  • Understands most sentences.

  • Uses 3-5 word phrases/sentences consistently.

  • Answers what, where, or yes/no questions.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years5

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Language (cont’d)

  • Distinguishes on, in, under, big, little.

  • Starts using past tense, referring to future.

  • Listens attentively to stories & books but doesn’t like if you skip or change a word.

  • Uses words differently at different times.

  • Repeats words and sounds.

  • Uses words to express fears and insecurities by telling others “don’t look”, “don’t laugh”, etc.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years6

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional

  • Similar fears as 2 - 2 ½; some decrease in separation anxiety; fears imaginary things, unusual or dramatic appearances in other people.

  • Begins to develop real friendships; may develop imaginary friend.

  • Increasingly likes having peers and other adults around.

  • Separates easily from caregiver in familiar surroundings.

  • Imitates behavior of others.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years7

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Demonstrates increasing independence; defiant behavior.

  • Follows simple rules, suggestions.

  • Makes simple choices.

  • Enjoys playing alone, but near other children.

  • Can play cooperatively for short periods.

  • Shares & take turns sometimes, but still does not cooperate well.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years8

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Participates in circle games.

  • Acts out social encounters through play activities.

  • Expresses wide range of emotions.

  • Objects to minor changes in routines.

  • Realizes own skills.

  • Acts to please adults.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years9

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Social-Emotional (cont’d)

  • Helps others.

  • Seeks assistance.

  • Directs others.

  • Enjoys making others laugh and being silly.

  • Spends a great deal of time watching & observing.

  • Enjoys hearing stories about self & playing ‘house’.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years10

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Gross Motor

  • Throws ball overhand; catches a large ball.

  • Jumps over a line.

  • Ascends/descends stairs alternating feet without help.

  • May swing leg to kick ball; more accurate kicking.

  • Rides on tricycle using pedals.

  • Can briefly balance and hop on one foot.

  • Enjoys fast moving activities.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


31 36 months 2 3 years11

31-36 Months(2 ½ - 3 Years)

Fine Motor

  • Holds pencil in writing position. Scribbles spontaneously.

  • Makes or copies lines & circles with pencil/crayon.

  • Turns one page at a time.

  • Builds 3 block bridge with demonstration.

  • Might use one hand more frequently than another.

  • Undoes some buttons, laces, zippers.

  • Cuts across 6” piece of paper with scissors.

  • Easily places small objects in a small opening.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


3 years

3 Years

Physical Markers

  • Gained about 4-5 lbs. and grown about 2-3” in last year.

  • About 25 to 44 lbs. and 34 to 43”.

  • Develops taller, leaner appearance.

  • Has all 20 primary teeth.

  • Sleeps 10-12 hours per night plus daytime nap.

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


Toilet learning

Toilet Learning

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


Toilet learning1

Toilet Learning

About 18-20 mos. - Indicates discomfort over soiled diapers verbally or with gestures.

About 2 yrs. - May be psychologically ready for toilet learning. Begins to gain some control of bowels & bladder.

About 28 mo. - Indicates need to use the bathroom.

About 33 mo. - Distinguishes urination & bowel movements.

About 3 yrs. - May have daytime & possibly nighttime control over bowel & bladder functions.

About 36-38 mos. - May have full control, use toilet on own. Boys often do not complete toilet learning until 3 ½ (42 mo.).

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


Wrap up

Wrap-up

  • Questions

  • Discussion

  • In-service evaluation

  • Follow-up

  • Next session Nov. 25: Early brain development, learning, and mental health

11.18.08 Infant-Toddler 4, D. Richardson


References

References

In addition to the provided resource materials listed on the in-service agenda, various textbooks and other reference materials used for this presentation are available upon request.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson


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