Our solar system
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Our solar System. The Nebular theory. The Nebular Theory is based off of observations of objects, such as comets, asteroids, shape and size of our planets in our solar systems as well as stars outside our solar system.

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Our solar System

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Our solar system

Our solar System


The nebular theory

The Nebular theory

  • The Nebular Theory is based off of observations of objects, such as comets, asteroids, shape and size of our planets in our solar systems as well as stars outside our solar system.

  • The theory states a gas cloud, mostly likely fro a supernova, was pulled inward by the force of gravity, creating a larger central mass that would eventually become our sun.

  • The gas cloud then began rotating so quickly that it began to flatten into an accretion disk by the centripetal force.

  • Then, matter began to pull the gas and dust into Planetisimal.

  • The growth of the Planetisimals continued as the collisions of material merged to create larger bodies.

  • The first planet to be generated was Jupiter through merging of light elements and ice. The other Jovian planets formed similarly. All Jovian planets that acquired a disk of matter along it equator, which eventually became the rings.

  • The terrestrial planets formed from accretion of elements that resisted vaporization in the intense heat; such as rock and metal.

  • Eventually all remaining materials either merged with planets through impacts, became icy comets with orbits or remained in the Asteroid Belt.


Terrestrial planets

Terrestrial Planets

  • The four inner planets that are similar to Earth.

    • Have rocky bodies

    • Densities range from 3.5-5.5g/cm3

    • A= Aphehelion is the point furtherst from the sun

    • P= Perihelion is point closest to the sun


Mercury the god of speed

Mercury- the god of speed

  • Diameter:3,029miles (1/3 size of Earth)

  • Distance from Sun: A= 43 mill, P=29 mill

  • Temperature:427C day, -173C

  • Number of Moons: 0

  • Atmospheric composition: Sodium and Oxygen; deposited from the Sun

  • Rotation: 59 day

  • Revolution: 88 days


Mercury

Mercury:

  • Mercury lacks an atmosphere due to the intense solar wind as well as very little gravity due to its small mass.

  • Mercury’s interior consists of an extremely large nickel-iron core.

  • Mercury’s small magnetic field demosntrates that the core is still molten.

  • Surface of Mercury is covered in craters, due to lack of atmosphere for protection, as well as, cliffs called scarps.

  • Recent images in 2012 have show that there has been evidence of lava and volcanic activity on Mercruy through volcanic vents.


Venus the goddess of love and beauty

Venus- the goddess of love and beauty

  • Diameter: 7,521 miles

  • Distance from Sun: A= 67.2 mill

  • Temperature: Average of 464°C (Earth is 15C)

  • Number of Moons: 0

  • Atmospheric composition: 96.5% Carbon Dioxide, 3.5% Nitrogen

  • Rotation: 243 days- it’s day is longer than its year (most likely due to an impact°

  • Revolution: 224.7 days


Venus

Venus

  • Venus also has a very low tilt (2.6°), so even if it did cool, i would not have seasons.

  • With the large amount of carbon dioxide in its atmosphere, Venus suffers from extreme Greenhouse Effect, trapping of heat to the surface from CO2, so it averages over 800°F.

  • Venus has an extremely large and dense cloud layer. These clouds are composed of sulfuric acid and the atmospheric pressure is equivalent to being under 3000 feet of water!

  • Venus is too hot for liquid water now, however, new evidence found traces of oxygen and hydrogen in the Venusian atmosphere which suggests the planet was once rich in water, but must have been at a much cooler at the time.

  • Venus has retrograde or backwards rotation. Meaning The Sun rises in the west and sets in the east on Venus.


Earth

  • Diameter:7,926 miles

  • Distance from Sun: A- 93mill, P- 90 million miles

  • Temperature: Averaged 65°F, 15°C

  • Number of Moons: 1

  • Atmospheric composition: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen

  • Rotation: 24 hours

  • Revolution: 365.25 days (leap year)

Earth


Earth1

Earth

  • Have four distinct seasons due to 23.93° tilt

  • Molten mantle, which allows for Plate Tectonics

  • Plate Tectonics not only created and changed our surface but it volcanic eruptions created water on Earth!

  • OZONE LAYER- protects life!

  • Only planet with specialized atmosphere that protects the surface from impacts and radiation from sun.

  • Extremely strong Magnetosphere.

  • Only Planet with LIFE!


Mars god of war

Mars- God of War

  • Diameter:4,213 miles

  • Distance from Sun: 141.6 million miles

  • Temperature: -55°at night at 20°C during the day

  • Number of Moons: (Deimos and Phobos- asteroids)

  • Atmospheric composition: 95.3% carbon dioxide, 2.7% nitrogen

  • Rotation: 24.63 hours

  • Revolution:687 days

The ice on Mar’s poles is a carbon dioxide ice not H2O ice.


Mars s surface

Mars’ssurface

  • Mars’s surface is reddish-brown due to high amounts of iron oxide (rust) in its soil.

  • The southern and northern hemispheres differ in that the southern is heavily cratered while the north is covered in great plains.

  • There is evidence of heavy lava flows, however, these volcanoes were created from hot spots rather than plate tectonics.

  • Mar’s Olumpus Mons is larger than Colorado and three times larger than Mt. Everst!

  • The Valles Marineris is a canyon 10 times longer than the Grand Canyon and was most likley formed from ANCEINT plate tectoncs 3 bya.


Mar s atmosphere

Mar’s Atmosphere

  • The Greenouse Effect exists on Mars as well but Mar’s has a lot less atmospheric pressure.

  • Mars’s atmosphere is also extremely thin due to it lower gravity.

  • Mars is believed to have had water however, the above left image recently showed that Mars’s seasonal water evaporating from its landscape. Old rivers and valleys show that Mars may have been covered in rivers and NOW shows salt deposits, which means Mars’s salty water would have been able to resist freezing.

  • As shown here, Mars also experiences planet-wide dust storms that cover the planet for weeks.


Jovian planets

Jovian planets

  • Jovian planets are the gas giants of the solar system.

  • They range from 15 to 300 times the mass of earth and are 4-10 times larger in diameter.

  • They all have solid cores as well as rings with generally a large amount of satellites (moon) due to their strong gravities.


Jupiter the king of the gods

Jupiter- the king of the gods

  • Diameter: 88,846 miles

  • Distance from Sun: 483.6 million miles, the difference in miles between Aphelion and perihelion is 47.3 million miles

  • Temperature: -166°F

  • Number of Moons: 63

  • Atmospheric composition: 89.8% Hydrogen, 10.2% helium

  • Rotation: 99.6 hours (fast due to massive gravity)

  • Revolution: 11.86 earth years


Jupiter s atmosphere

Jupiter’s atmosphere

  • Due to it’s rapid rotation, the shape of the planet is distorted so the equator is 7 percent larger than the diameter of the poles.

  • Also, the rapid rotation causes the clouds to flow rapidly creating bands called belts that alternate in light and dark colors.

  • Jupiter also has the Great Red Spot, which is a hurricane-like storm that is three times larger than earth.

  • Jupiter’s surface is a condensed gaseous plasma but has a solid, metal and rocky core.


Jupiter s 4 major moons

Jupiter’s 4 Major moons

  • Io- most volcanic object in solar system, orbit is only 42.5 hours around Jupiter

  • Ganymede- largest moon in solar system, made of rock and carbon dioxide ice

  • Callisto- much brighter than our moon (ice reflects more sunlight) darker regions are rock

  • Europa- ice-covered ball of rock, average temp around -225°F, however, there is a very good chance of warm (by the cgravity pulsating) liquid water to be under the ice which could possilby have microscopic life


Saturn

saturn

  • Diameter: 74,898 miles

  • Distance from Sun: 888 mill miles

  • Temperature: -220°F

  • Number of Moons: 55

  • Atmospheric composition: 96.3% Hydrogen, 3.7% helium

  • Rotation: 10.66 hours (fast due to massive gravity)

  • Revolution: 29.46 Earth years


Saturn god of agriculture

Saturn- god of agriculture

  • Saturn has an extremley low density, so much that it would float in water!

  • Saturn can be observed from Earth with a naked eye 10 months out of the year. It appears pale yellow due to the thick cloud layers (3 distinct layers) that have crystallized ammonia at their tops.

  • Saturn also experiences Auroras from the Sun’s solar wind that can been seen on its southern pole.

  • Saturn's’ magnetic field is a 1000 X’s larger than the Earth’s!


Saturn s rings

Saturn’s rings

  • The rings are compsed of microscopic particles to house-sized chunks.

  • There are 7 major rings and each ring is made up of smaller rings called ringlets.

  • These particles reflect a lot of light presenting a beautiful color display.

  • These rings change as the moons move through them.

  • Saturn’s rings are paper thin, in comparison to the size of the planet.

  • Origin of the rings is most likely an object that was shattered by an asteroid or a moon broken apart by Saturn’s gravity.


Saturn s moons

Saturn’s Moons

Titan

Enceladus

Enceladus is similar to Europa in that there could be liquid oceans under the ice heated by the gravity pulsing creating heat.

Crack in the ice and gysers support the idea of aubunant surface liquid water.

  • Titan is unique because its atmosphere is made up of elements that orginate carbon material such as nitrogen and methane.

  • This is a very Earth-like atmosphere.


Uranus god of the sky

Uranus-God of the Sky

  • Diameter: 31,763 miles

  • Distance from Sun: 1.78 bill miles

  • Temperature: -353°F

  • Number of Moons: 27

  • Atmospheric composition: 82.5% Hydrogen, 15.2% Helium, and 2.3% Methane (small amount of methane creates the pale blue color)

  • Rotation: 17.24 hours (fast due to massive gravity)

  • Revolution: 84 Earth years


Uranus

uranus

  • Uranus was first discovered accidently in 1781 when a bluish object was observed in the night sky.

  • Uranus is 4 times larger and 15 times more massive than earth.

  • Uranus has few clouds and they blend into the atmosphere.

  • The interior is very similar to the other Jovian planets with a liquid interior and a rocky core.

  • Uranus has a very faint ring system, however, the rings run vertically due to Uranus’s 98° tilt. (Most likely due to a large impact) Due to this tilt, each pole will spend 42 earth years in darkness and 42 years in the light.

  • Uranus has five major rocky moons, shown above.


Neptune god of the sea

Neptune- God of the sea

  • Diameter: 30,760 miles

  • Distance from Sun: 2.8 billion miles

  • Temperature: -320°F

  • Number of Moons: Was 13, now 14 (Hubble telescope recently spotted another moon)

  • Atmospheric composition:79% Hydrogen, 18% Helium 3% Methane

  • Rotation: 16.11 hours (fast due to massive gravity)

  • Revolution: 164.9 yearsEarth years

Neptune has a Great Dark Spot, similar to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.


Neptune

neptune

  • Before it was discovered in 1846, Neptune was predicted before it was discovered using Newton’s universal law of gravitation formula.

  • Neptune is slightly smaller and denser than Uranus but also gains its blue color from the methane in its atmosphere.

  • Neptune has six rings composed of microscopic particles.

  • Unlike Uranus, Neptune has very distinct and thick cloud layers with belts and a Great Dark Spot, similar to that of Jupiter. (however, the Great Dark Spot moves often and sometimes disappears.)

  • Triton, Neptune’s largest moon has retrograde motion, which means it revolves backwards.

  • Triton also has nitrogen gysers on its south pole that erupt when sunlight reaches its icy surface.


The dwarf planets

The Dwarf planets

  • There are FIVE Dwarf Planets in our Solar System; Pluto, Eris, Makemake and Haumea (found in the Kupier Belt) and a very large asteroid called Ceres.

  • What is a Planet?

    • In 2006 the International Astronomical Union define a planet as an object that orbits the sun with sufficient mass and gravity.

    • Dwarf Planets orbit the sun but do not clear their “neighborhood” and they are not a moon(satellite)


Our solar system

Ceres

Pluto

Average distance from Sun- 3.8 billion miles

Temperature- -382°F

Diameter- 1,432 miles

5 Moon- Charon (Diameter of 730 miles), Nix , Hydra, Vulcan and Kerberos. (Ask who voted to select the last two names of Pluto’s moons)

Atmosphere- 99.97% Nitrogen

Rotation= 6.38 days

Revolution= 248.6 years

Gravity- 1/8 that of Earth

Orbit- Pluto has a more elliptical and titled orbit, one of the reasons its lost identification as a planet. This tilted orbit sometimes allows it to be closer to the sun than Neptune, making Neptune further than Pluto.

Eccentricity: .25

  • Ceres is located in the Asteroid Belt. It was discovered in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi

  • Has a diameter of only 605 miles

  • Orbits the sun every 4.5 years

  • By far the most massive object in the Asteroid Belt, contains about one third of the belt’s total mass!

  • Pluto is 14 times more massive than Ceres


Our solar system

Haumea

  • Makemake was discovered in March 2005 by a team of astronomers led by Mike Brown.

  • Makemake officially became a dwarf planet in July 2008

  • Makemake is named after the Rapa people of Easter Island.

  • Makemake officially became a dwarf planet in July 2008

  • Haumea was classified as a dwarf planet in 2008

  • It is a large Kupier Belt Object

  • It take 285 year to orbit the Sun

  • It has a diameter of 1,218 miles

  • Has two moons, Hiiaka and Namaka

  • Haumea is named after the Hawaiian goddess of fertility and childbirth

  • Its fast spin caused it to become oval

Eris

Makemake

  • Eris was discovered in 2003, this caused the controversy of Pluto because these two objects were the same size

  • Most likely large than Pluto (too far)

  • White in color and 97 AU’s away

  • Has 1 moon

  • Eccentricity is .43

  • Has a moon named Dysnomia

  • Eris used to be named Xena- Warrior Princess

  • Takes 557 years to orbit the sun!


Celestial objects asteroids meteors meteorites and comets

Celestial Objects: Asteroids, Meteors, Meteorites and Comets

Images of asteroids in space

Computer animated asteroid impact

Asteroids- large pieces of rocky debris, some larger than our moon.

Most asteroids in our solar system are located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Asteroids do not have a specific orbit, they cluster in the belt and are continuously knocked out or pulled in my Jupiter.

Meteors and Meteorites:

Meteors- pieces of rock that burn up in our atmosphere. (shooting star)

Meteorite- pieces of rock that survive burning up in our atmosphere and land on the surface of the Earth.

Comets- balls of ice and dust in a specific orbit in space.

Kuiper Belt and Orrt Clouds-these are two areas at the edge of our solar system where comets are located until knocked into a new, closer orbit.

Halley’s Comet

(Every 76 years)

Kuiper belt

Meteorite

Meteor Shower


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