9 grammar sentence structure
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9 Grammar Sentence Structure. Simple sentence Compound Sentence Complex sentence Compound-complex sentence. Simple Sentence. A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. We worked long hours at the polling booth. Ed and I checked and rechecked our answer.

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9 Grammar Sentence Structure

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9 grammar sentence structure

9 GrammarSentence Structure

Simple sentence

Compound Sentence

Complex sentence

Compound-complex sentence


Simple sentence

Simple Sentence

  • A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause.

    • Weworked long hours at the polling booth.

    • Ed and Ichecked and rechecked our answer.

      • Note – a simple sentence can have a compound subject and/or a compound verb.


Writing

Writing

Use simple sentences for emphasis and clarity

Too many simple sentences, however, can make your writing sound choppy and disjointed


Compound sentence

Compound Sentence

  • A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction, by a semicolon, by a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb, or with a correlative conjunction.

    • My brotherbought some stamps yesterday, and

      hemounted them in his stamp collection.

    • Ben and Igobbled the oranges; theytasted very

      good after the hike.


Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions

  • Coordinating conjunctions link 2 independent clauses to form a compound sentence.

    • ForOr

    • AndYet

    • NorSo

    • But

  • She could not read, yet she played the piano beautifully.


Conjunctive adverbs

Conjunctive Adverbs

  • Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs used as conjunctions to connect complete ideas.

  • They can follow a semicolon to give added meaning to a compound sentence.

  • They are often used as transitions, creating bridges between different ideas by showing comparisons, contrasts, results, etc.

    • She could not read music; however, she played the piano beautifully.


Conjunctive adverbs1

Conjunctive Adverbs

Accordingly

Afterward

Again

Also

Anyhow

As a result

At the time

Besides

Consequently

Conversely

Finally

For example

For instance

Furthermore

However

In addition

In fact

Indeed

Instead

Last

Later

Likewise

Meanwhile

Moreover

Nevertheless

Next

Now

On the other hand

Otherwise

Similarly

Soon

Still

Sure

Then

Thereafter

Therefore

Thus

Too


Correlative conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions

  • Correlative conjunctions are paired conjunctions that link balanced words, phrases, and clauses

    • Either … or

    • Neither … nor

    • Both … and

    • Not only … but also

    • Just as … so

    • The more … the less

    • The more … the more


Writing1

Writing

  • Use compound sentences to clarify relationships

    • to join ideas of equal importance

      • Several researchers have proven garlic is good for the heart; consequently, many people with heart disease use garlic in their meals.

    • to explain how ideas are related

      • and – additional information

      • but, yet – contrast or opposites

        • No one wants to pay more taxes, yet taxes are necessary to support vital public services.

      • for, so – causes or effects

      • or, nor – choices or options


Complex sentence

Complex Sentence

  • A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

    • When the Fourth of Julyarrives, Iwill celebrate

      along with everybody else.

    • Our band, whichwon the trophy, will perform

      after the gameis over.


Complex sentence1

Complex Sentence

When the dependent clause appears first, it is followed by a comma

When the independent clause comes first, a comma is not used


Subordinate conjunctions

Subordinate Conjunctions

  • Subordinate conjunctions can link independent and dependent clauses to form a complex sentence.

    • Although she could not read music, she played the piano beautifully.


Subordinate conjunctions1

Subordinate Conjunctions

After

Although

As

As far as

As if

As long as

As much as

As soon as

As though

Because

Before

Even if

Even though

How

If

Inasmuch as

In order that

Just as

Lest now that

Once

Provided

Provided that

Since

So that

Than

That

Though

Till

Unless

Until

What

Whatever

When

Whenever

Where

Wherever

Whereas

Whereby

Whether

Which

While

Who

Whom


Writing2

Writing

  • Use complex sentences to show subordinate relationships

    • To show that one or more ideas are less important than (or subordinate to) another idea

      • Circumstance - as, as far as, as soon as, as if, as though, even though, even if, in order to

      • Causes or effects – because, since, so that

      • Time – before, after, while, until, when

      • Condition – whether, if, unless, even if


Compound complex sentence

Compound-Complex Sentence

  • A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.

    • Iran down the path to the spot where it

      divides, and then Iturned back.


Writing3

Writing

Use compound-complex sentences occasionally to express complicated relationships

Use them sparingly; when overused, they tend to make your writing sound wordy and labored


Writing sentence structure

Writing– Sentence Structure

  • Sentences should:

    • Be clear and concise

    • Be varied

    • Contain elements and parts that are parallel *

    • Contain strong, active verbs *

      * These concepts will be introduced in future lessons


Writing4

Writing

Sentences that are concise convey their meaning in as few words as possible


Writing concise sentences

Writing – Concise Sentences

  • Avoid wordy expressions and/or empty phrases

    • In the near future, another revolution in computer technology is bound to occur.

    • Another revolution in computer technology is bound to occur soon.

    • In light of the fact that computer technology changes every month or so, software upgrades are what everybody has to do.

    • Since computer technology changes monthly, software upgrades are necessary.


Writing concise sentences1

Writing– Concise Sentences

  • Eliminate redundancy

    • My decision to choose the field of accounting as my major will lead to steady, rewarding employment.

    • Choosing accounting as my major will lead to steady, rewarding employment.

    • The type of slang I notice teenagers using is part of the way they establish who they are and what their identity is.

    • Teenagers use slang to establish their identity.


Writing concise sentences2

Writing– Concise Sentences

  • Eliminate unnecessary sentence openings

    • It is my opinion that fast-food restaurants should post nutritional information for each menu item.

    • Fast-food restaurants should post nutritional information for each menu item.

    • Many people would agree that nutritious food and snacks are a priority for health-conscious people.

    • Selecting nutritious food and snacks is a priority for many health-conscious people.


Writing concise sentences3

Writing– Concise Sentences

  • Eliminate unnecessary adverbs

    • The journalist was very elated when he learned that he had won a Pulitzer Prize.

    • The journalist was elated when he learned that he had won a Pulitzer Prize.

    • The college president was quite disturbed by the findings of the Presidential Panel on Sex Equity.

    • The college president was disturbed by the findings of the Presidential Panel on Sex Equity.


Writing concise sentences4

Writing– Concise Sentences

  • Eliminate unnecessary phrases or clauses

    • The complaints of students in the college encouraged the dean to create additional parking spaces for cars.

    • The students’ complaints encouraged the dean to create additional parking areas.

    • The teenagers who were mall walkers disagreed with the editorial in the newspaper that supported the shopping mall regulations.

    • The teenage mall walkers disagreed with the newspaper editorial supporting shopping mall regulations.


Writing sentence variety

Writing – Sentence Variety

Short sentences tend to be sharp and emphatic; they move ideas forward quickly, creating a fast pace

Longer sentences, in contrast, move the reader more slowly through the essay


Writing sentence variety1

Writing – Sentence Variety

  • Play with the pattern of a typical sentence

    • Subject-verb

  • Vary the placement of modifiers in your sentences


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