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Unit 4 Matters of the Mind. 醫學二 A B9802105 徐乙玉. Vocabulary. subarachnoid (a.)   [ˌsʌbəˈræknɔɪd] below the level of the arachnoid layer 蛛網膜下腔的 hemorrhage (n.) [ˈhɛmərɪdʒ] a medical condition in which there is severe loss of blood from inside a person’s body 出血

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unit 4 matters of the mind
Unit 4 Matters of the Mind




  • subarachnoid (a.)   [ˌsʌbəˈræknɔɪd]

below the level of the arachnoid layer


  • hemorrhage (n.) [ˈhɛmərɪdʒ] a

medical condition in which there

is severe loss of blood from inside

a person’s body 出血

  • aneurysm (n.)  [ˈænjəˌrɪzəm] an area of extreme swelling on the wall of artery動脈瘤
  • anterior communicating artery前交通動脈
  • pericallosal artery胼胝體周圍動脈
  • discharge (v.) the act of allowing somebody to leave hospital出院
  • ignition (n.) /ɪg\'nɪʃən/ the electrical system of a vehicle that makes the fuel begin to burn to start the engine點火裝置,點火開關
  • misdemeanor (n.) [ˌmɪsdɪˈminɚ] an action that is bad or unacceptable, but not very serious輕罪
  • idleness (n.)   [ˈaɪdḷnɪs] without work 失業
  • unpunctuality (n.) not arriving, happening, or being done at exactly the time that has been arranged不守時
  • reactive depression反應性抑鬱症
  • clear-cut definite and easy to see or identify明確的
  • stroop test叫色測驗
  • trail making test連連看測驗
  • CT-scan (CT = computed tomography) 電腦斷層掃描
  • lesion (n.) /\'liʒən/ damage to the skin or part of the body caused by injury or by illness器官損害
  • relapse (v.)/‘riˈlæps/to go back into a previous condition or into a worse state after making an improvement復發
  • premorbid (n.) the time before the illness started


  • detrimental (a.) /ˈdɛtrə\'mɛntḷ/ harmful有害的
  • obsessive-compulsive behavior /əb\'sɛsɪv/強迫症
summary paragraph 1
Summary---Paragraph 1
  • A normal man was sent to the prison because of misbehavior after brain surgery.
subarachnoid hemorrhage sah
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)
  • SAH can be caused by a ruptured aneurysm
  • stroke occurs when the brain is deprived of oxygen
summary paragraph 2 3
Summary---Paragraph 2、3
  • He repeatedly stole cars and parked them in the vicinity of his house. As a result, he was sent to the prison.
  • His movement wasn’t criminal; he stole cars under effects of alcohol and depression. Borrowing cars gave him a kind of pleasurable relief.
summary paragraph 4
Summary---Paragraph 4
  • He failed to maintain steady employment because of the hemorrhage, and neither medication nor psychotherapy work.
  • Discussion
    • If you were the employer, what would you do when you know the man’s misbehavior?
summary paragraph 5
Summary---Paragraph 5
  • Clinical tests showed nothing unusual except the CT-scan showed that he had slight damage to one part of the brain.

The brain is composed of three parts: the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum

  • The cerebrum is divided

into four lobes:

    • frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • occipital
frontal lobe syndrome
Frontal lobe syndrome
  • Perserveration

The persistence of a repetitive response after the cause of the response has been removed, or the response continues to different stimuli.

neuropsychological testing
Neuropsychological Testing
  • Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
    • developed to assess abstract reasoning and ability to shift cognitive strategies in response to environmental changes.
neuropsychological testing1
Neuropsychological Testing
  • Stroop Test
    • examines how the brain processes language and colour
    • tell the ink colours rather than read the actual word printed
neuropsychological testing stroop test1
Neuropsychological Testing---Stroop Test
  • The cognitive mechanism involved in this task is called directed attention, you have to manage your attention, inhibit or stop one response in order to say or do something else.
neuropsychological testing trail making test
Neuropsychological Testing---Trail Making Test
  • “multitasking” can be faster?


summary paragraph 6
Summary---Paragraph 6
  • Brain damage and its possible effect on a person’s mental abilities.
  • Discussion
    • Have you ever heard a similar story or case?