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Interpretive Research Designs. Ali Djamhuri. Philosophical Questions Distinguishing Paradigms and the Issue of Subjective-objective Dimension. Realism. Nominalism. Ontology. Positivism. Anti-positivism. Epistemology. Determinism. Voluntarism. Human Nature. Nomothetic. Ideographic.

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Philosophical questions distinguishing paradigms and the issue of subjective objective dimension
Philosophical Questions Distinguishing Paradigms and the Issue of Subjective-objective Dimension

Realism

Nominalism

Ontology

Positivism

Anti-positivism

Epistemology

Determinism

Voluntarism

Human Nature

Nomothetic

Ideographic

Methodology

Source: Burrell & Morgan, 1979, 3)


Ontology
Ontology Issue of

Nominalism

Realism

Social world external to individual cognition is a real world made up of hard, tangible, and relatively immutable structure. They still exist as empirical entities

The social world exists independently of an individual’s appreciation of it. Reality is out there and is not man made creation, but as given (as is)

  • Social world external to individual cognition is nothing more than names, concepts and labels that are used to structure reality

  • The concepts, names, and labels are artificial creations and their utility based on convenience as tool for describing, making sense, and negotiating external world


Epistemology
Epistemology Issue of

Anti-positivism

Positivism

Understanding of social world can be performed by observer

social science orientation is to explain, predict, and to control performed by identifying regularities and causal relationship

Positivistic social science emphasizes objectivy such as by avoiding bias and the use of personal language

  • Social world is relativistic and can be understood only by the point of view of the individuals who are directly involved in the activities which are to be studied

  • Social science is basically subjective

  • Anti-positivist reject objectivity in social science


Human nature
Human Nature Issue of

Voluntarism

Determinism

Humankind and their activities are being completely determined by the situation or environment where they are located

Most human activities are externally driven by stimulus.Human activities are just responses to stimulus

Human activities are predictable or even programmable

  • Humankind and their activities are completely authonomous and having free will

  • Most human activities are internally driven by human free will or by meanings owned about their activities

  • Human activities are not predictable, but stillunderstandable


Methodology axiology
Methodology (Axiology) Issue of

Ideographic

Nomothetic

Empasizing on the importance of rigid, systematic protocols (procedures, techniques)

Scientific rigor is placed upon its rigidity of procedures (quantification, testing and others)

Hypothesis testing model dominates inquiries

  • Closeness to the social world is the key to understand it.

  • Social theory is subjective accounts generated from insider’s interpretation

  • Emphasizing process, interactions and the importance of natural setting

  • Narrative and story telling is viewed as effective tool to report or transmit such accounts


Four paradigms for the analysis of social theory burrell morgan 1979 22
Four Paradigms for the Analysis of Social Theory Issue of (Burrell & Morgan, 1979,22)

The Sociology of Radical Change

Radical

Humanist

Radical

Structuralist

Objective

Subjective

Interptretive

Functionalist

The Sociology of Regulation


Continuity implications in burrell and morgan s model of paradigm categorization
Continuity Implications in Burrell and Morgan’s Model of Paradigm Categorization

  • The number of paradigms is extremely limitless

  • It is possible to create new sociological paradigm

  • Even within a certain paradigm, there are various reserach approaches distinguihed based on their magnitude of subjectivity-objectivity polarity or change-stability polarity


Interpretive paradigm
Interpretive Paradigm Paradigm Categorization

The Sociology of Radical Change

Radical

Humanist

Radical

Structuralist

Objective

Subjective

Interptretive

Functionalist

The Sociology of Regulation


Interpretive anti positive paradigm
Interpretive (Anti-Positive Paradigm) Paradigm Categorization

  • Grounded Theory

  • Hermeneutics

  • Ethnography

  • Transcendental Phenomenology

  • Existential Phenomenology

  • Ethnomethodology

  • Phenomenology Symbolic Interactionism


Existential phenomenology heidegger schutz
Existential Phenomenology Paradigm Categorization(Heidegger,Schutz)

  • Instead of concern to transcendental consciousness (see transcendental phenomenology), existential phenomenology go to “life-world” (more on surface and more sociological)

  • Getting the meaning of human actions or phenomena through epocheor bracketting, that is examining phenomena as they are originally given to consciousness(Husserl)


Transcendental phenomenology husserlian or everyday life phenomenology
Transcendental Phenomenology Paradigm Categorization(Husserlian or Everyday Life Phenomenology)

  • Science is characterized by intentionality ...fully subjective

  • Phenomenology is created to build “strong objective foundation” of science

  • Orientating to answer the central question of meaning by going out from facts to the phenomenon (structure of experience) by bracketting the facts


Phenomenology symbolic interactionism
Phenomenology Paradigm CategorizationSymbolic Interactionism

  • Human actions are based on their own meaning

  • Reality (meaning) is costructed through human (social) interaction, a negotiated result among competing themes, definitions or interpretations

  • Reality (meaning) is changing

  • Less subjective in viewing the social world (reality) compared to ethnomethodology


Hermeneutics dilthey
Hermeneutics (Dilthey) Paradigm Categorization

  • Ontologically adopting objective-idealist view

  • Hermeneutics is essentially a methodology for studying the objectification of mind

  • The reality should be studied as text and in detail to reveal their essential meaning and significance

  • Social world should be studied in their total context, they may have different meaning in the other context


Ethnomethodology garfinkel
Ethnomethodology Paradigm Categorization(Garfinkel)

  • Studying social daily life in detail, specifically praactical activities,practical circumstances and practical sociological reasoning

  • Specific attention is usually given to extra ordinary event of an ordered situation to understand how the insiders of the culture interpret and treat such extra ordinary

  • The purpose is to provide adequate accounts, adequate descriptions, and adequate evidence about daily life that may contain awesome indexicalities


Tips Paradigm Categorization

  • Find the language (terms, principle, key concepts ) of any design chosen

  • Suit it with subject matter researched

  • Be consistent in teh design chosen by following relevant methodological steps in the design

  • Report the work in the language of the chosen design


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