Android 10 events menus and the action bar
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Android 10: Events, Menus, and the Action Bar. Kirk Scott. This is a list of the sections in this set of overheads: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Input Events 10.3 Menus. 10.1 Introduction. The pattern continues from the last set of overheads

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Android 10 events menus and the action bar

Android 10: Events, Menus, and the Action Bar

Kirk Scott


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • This is a list of the sections in this set of overheads:

  • 10.1 Introduction

  • 10.2 Input Events

  • 10.3 Menus


10 1 introduction

10.1 Introduction


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The pattern continues from the last set of overheads

  • The contents of the overheads consist largely of material taken from the online tutorials, with occasional commentary by me

  • The commentary will either be introduced as commentary or appear in square brackets

  • If not set off in this way, the content is taken from the tutorials


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • As mentioned before, what you’re getting is an idiosyncratic path through some of the various topics covered in the tutorials

  • The goal is to cover enough of the items involved in sufficient depth so that the perceptive learner could pick up more when needed


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The more immediate goal is to provide material for the second half of the second homework assignment

  • You can pick from among the topics in this set of overheads for items to get points for on the assignment


10 2 input events

10.2 Input Events


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Input Events

  • On Android, there's more than one way to intercept the events from a user's interaction with your application.

  • When considering events within your user interface, the approach is to capture the events from the specific View object that the user interacts with.

  • The View class provides the means to do so.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Within the various View classes that you'll use to compose your layout, you may notice several public callback methods that look useful for UI events.

  • These methods are called by the Android framework when the respective action occurs on that object.

  • For instance, when a View (such as a Button) is touched, the onTouchEvent() method is called on that object.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • However, in order to intercept this, you must extend the class and override the method.

  • However, extending every View object in order to handle such an event would not be practical.

  • This is why the View class also contains a collection of nested interfaces with callbacks that you can much more easily define.

  • These interfaces, called event listeners, are your ticket to capturing the user interaction with your UI.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • While you will more commonly use the event listeners to listen for user interaction, there may come a time when you do want to extend a View class, in order to build a custom component.

  • Perhaps you want to extend the Button class to make something more fancy.

  • In this case, you'll be able to define the default event behaviors for your class using the class event handlers.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Event Listeners

  • An event listener is an interface in the View class that contains a single callback method.

  • These methods will be called by the Android framework when the View to which the listener has been registered is triggered by user interaction with the item in the UI.

  • Included in the event listener interfaces are the following callback methods:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onClick()

  • From View.OnClickListener.

  • This is called when the user either touches the item (when in touch mode), or focuses upon the item with the navigation-keys or trackball and presses the suitable "enter" key or presses down on the trackball.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onLongClick()

  • From View.OnLongClickListener.

  • This is called when the user either touches and holds the item (when in touch mode), or focuses upon the item with the navigation-keys or trackball and presses and holds the suitable "enter" key or presses and holds down on the trackball (for one second).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onFocusChange()

  • From View.OnFocusChangeListener.

  • This is called when the user navigates onto or away from the item, using the navigation-keys or trackball.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onKey()

  • From View.OnKeyListener.

  • This is called when the user is focused on the item and presses or releases a hardware key on the device.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onTouch()

  • From View.OnTouchListener.

  • This is called when the user performs an action qualified as a touch event, including a press, a release, or any movement gesture on the screen (within the bounds of the item).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onCreateContextMenu()

  • From View.OnCreateContextMenuListener.

  • This is called when a Context Menu is being built (as the result of a sustained "long click").

  • See the discussion on context menus in the Menus developer guide.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • These methods are the sole inhabitants of their respective interface.

  • To define one of these methods and handle your events, implement the nested interface in your Activity or define it as an anonymous class.

  • Then, pass an instance of your implementation to the respective View.set...Listener() method.

  • (E.g., call setOnClickListener() and pass it your implementation of the OnClickListener.)


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The example below shows how to register an on-click listener for a Button.

  • // Create an anonymous implementation of OnClickListenerprivate OnClickListenermCorkyListener = new OnClickListener() {    public void onClick(View v) {      // do something when the button is clicked    }};


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • protected void onCreate(Bundle savedValues) {    ...    // Capture our button from layout    Button button = (Button)findViewById(R.id.corky);    // Register the onClick listener with the implementation abovebutton.setOnClickListener(mCorkyListener);    ...}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • You may also find it more convenient to implement OnClickListener as a part of your Activity.

  • This will avoid the extra class load and object allocation.

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • public class ExampleActivity extends Activity implements OnClickListener {    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedValues) {        ...        Button button = (Button)findViewById(R.id.corky);button.setOnClickListener(this);    }    // Implement the OnClickListener callback    public void onClick(View v) {      // do something when the button is clicked    }    ...}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Notice that the onClick() callback in the above example has no return value, but some other event listener methods must return a boolean.

  • The reason depends on the event.

  • For the few that do, here's why:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onLongClick() - This returns a boolean to indicate whether you have consumed the event and it should not be carried further.

  • That is, return true to indicate that you have handled the event and it should stop here;

  • return false if you have not handled it and/or the event should continue to any other on-click listeners.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onKey() - This returns a boolean to indicate whether you have consumed the event and it should not be carried further.

  • That is, return true to indicate that you have handled the event and it should stop here;

  • return false if you have not handled it and/or the event should continue to any other on-key listeners.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onTouch() - This returns a boolean to indicate whether your listener consumes this event.

  • The important thing is that this event can have multiple actions that follow each other.

  • So, if you return false when the down action event is received, you indicate that you have not consumed the event and are also not interested in subsequent actions from this event.

  • Thus, you will not be called for any other actions within the event, such as a finger gesture, or the eventual up action event.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Remember that hardware key events are always delivered to the View currently in focus.

  • They are dispatched starting from the top of the View hierarchy, and then down, until they reach the appropriate destination.

  • If your View (or a child of your View) currently has focus, then you can see the event travel through the dispatchKeyEvent() method.

  • As an alternative to capturing key events through your View, you can also receive all of the events inside your Activity with onKeyDown() and onKeyUp().


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Also, when thinking about text input for your application, remember that many devices only have software input methods.

  • Such methods are not required to be key-based;

  • some may use voice input, handwriting, and so on.

  • Even if an input method presents a keyboard-like interface, it will generally not trigger the onKeyDown() family of events.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • You should never build a UI that requires specific key presses to be controlled unless you want to limit your application to devices with a hardware keyboard.

  • In particular, do not rely on these methods to validate input when the user presses the return key;


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • instead, use actions like IME_ACTION_DONE to signal the input method how your application expects to react, so it may change its UI in a meaningful way.

  • Avoid assumptions about how a software input method should work and just trust it to supply already formatted text to your application.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note: Android will call event handlers first and then the appropriate default handlers from the class definition second.

  • As such, returning true from these event listeners will stop the propagation of the event to other event listeners and will also block the callback to the default event handler in the View.

  • So be certain that you want to terminate the event when you return true.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Event Handlers

  • If you're building a custom component from View, then you'll be able to define several callback methods used as default event handlers.

  • In the document about Custom Components, you'll learn see some of the common callbacks used for event handling, including:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • onKeyDown(int, KeyEvent) - Called when a new key event occurs.

  • onKeyUp(int, KeyEvent) - Called when a key up event occurs.

  • onTrackballEvent(MotionEvent) - Called when a trackball motion event occurs.

  • onTouchEvent(MotionEvent) - Called when a touch screen motion event occurs.

  • onFocusChanged(boolean, int, Rect) - Called when the view gains or loses focus.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • There are some other methods that you should be aware of, which are not part of the View class, but can directly impact the way you're able to handle events.

  • So, when managing more complex events inside a layout, consider these other methods:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Activity.dispatchTouchEvent(MotionEvent) - This allows your Activity to intercept all touch events before they are dispatched to the window.

  • ViewGroup.onInterceptTouchEvent(MotionEvent) - This allows a ViewGroup to watch events as they are dispatched to child Views.

  • ViewParent.requestDisallowInterceptTouchEvent(boolean) - Call this upon a parent View to indicate that it should not intercept touch events with onInterceptTouchEvent(MotionEvent).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Touch Mode

  • When a user is navigating a user interface with directional keys or a trackball, it is necessary to give focus to actionable items (like buttons) so the user can see what will accept input.

  • If the device has touch capabilities, however, and the user begins interacting with the interface by touching it, then it is no longer necessary to highlight items, or give focus to a particular View.

  • Thus, there is a mode for interaction named "touch mode."


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • For a touch-capable device, once the user touches the screen, the device will enter touch mode.

  • From this point onward, only Views for which isFocusableInTouchMode() is true will be focusable, such as text editing widgets.

  • Other Views that are touchable, like buttons, will not take focus when touched;

  • they will simply fire their on-click listeners when pressed.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Any time a user hits a directional key or scrolls with a trackball, the device will exit touch mode, and find a view to take focus.

  • Now, the user may resume interacting with the user interface without touching the screen.

  • The touch mode state is maintained throughout the entire system (all windows and activities).

  • To query the current state, you can call isInTouchMode() to see whether the device is currently in touch mode.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Handling Focus

  • The framework will handle routine focus movement in response to user input.

  • This includes changing the focus as Views are removed or hidden, or as new Views become available.

  • Views indicate their willingness to take focus through the isFocusable() method.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • To change whether a View can take focus, call setFocusable().

  • When in touch mode, you may query whether a View allows focus with isFocusableInTouchMode().

  • You can change this with setFocusableInTouchMode().


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Focus movement is based on an algorithm which finds the nearest neighbor in a given direction.

  • In rare cases, the default algorithm may not match the intended behavior of the developer.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • In these situations, you can provide explicit overrides with the following XML attributes in the layout file: nextFocusDown, nextFocusLeft, nextFocusRight, and nextFocusUp.

  • Add one of these attributes to the View from which the focus is leaving.

  • Define the value of the attribute to be the id of the View to which focus should be given.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • For example:

  • <LinearLayoutandroid:orientation="vertical"    ... >  <Button android:id="@+id/top"android:nextFocusUp="@+id/bottom"          ... />  <Button android:id="@+id/bottom"android:nextFocusDown="@+id/top"          ... /></LinearLayout>


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Ordinarily, in this vertical layout, navigating up from the first Button would not go anywhere, nor would navigating down from the second Button.

  • Now that the top Button has defined the bottom one as the nextFocusUp (and vice versa), the navigation focus will cycle from top-to-bottom and bottom-to-top.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • If you'd like to declare a View as focusable in your UI (when it is traditionally not), add the android:focusable XML attribute to the View, in your layout declaration.

  • Set the value true.

  • You can also declare a View as focusable while in Touch Mode with android:focusableInTouchMode.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • To request a particular View to take focus, call requestFocus().

  • To listen for focus events (be notified when a View receives or looses focus), use onFocusChange(), as discussed in the Event Listeners section, above.


10 3 menus

10.3 Menus


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Menus

  • Menus are a common user interface component in many types of applications.

  • To provide a familiar and consistent user experience, you should use the Menu APIs to present user actions and other options in your activities.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Beginning with Android 3.0 (API level 11), Android-powered devices are no longer required to provide a dedicated Menu button.

  • With this change, Android apps should migrate away from a dependence on the traditional 6-item menu panel and instead provide an action bar to present common user actions.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Although the design and user experience for some menu items have changed, the semantics to define a set of actions and options is still based on the Menu APIs.

  • This guide shows how to create the three fundamental types of menus or action presentations on all versions of Android:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Options menu and action bar

  • The options menu is the primary collection of menu items for an activity.

  • It's where you should place actions that have a global impact on the app, such as "Search," "Compose email," and "Settings."

  • If you're developing for Android 2.3 or lower, users can reveal the options menu panel by pressing the Menu button.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • On Android 3.0 and higher, items from the options menu are presented by the action bar as a combination of on-screen action items and overflow options.

  • Beginning with Android 3.0, the Menu button is deprecated (some devices don't have one), so you should migrate toward using the action bar to provide access to actions and other options.

  • See the section about Creating an Options Menu.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Context menu and contextual action mode

  • A context menu is a floating menu that appears when the user performs a long-click on an element.

  • It provides actions that affect the selected content or context frame.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • When developing for Android 3.0 and higher, you should instead use the contextual action mode to enable actions on selected content.

  • This mode displays action items that affect the selected content in a bar at the top of the screen and allows the user to select multiple items.

  • See the section about Creating Contextual Menus.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Popup menu

  • A popup menu displays a list of items in a vertical list that's anchored to the view that invoked the menu.

  • It's good for providing an overflow of actions that relate to specific content or to provide options for a second part of a command.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Actions in a popup menu should not directly affect the corresponding content—that's what contextual actions are for.

  • Rather, the popup menu is for extended actions that relate to regions of content in your activity.

  • See the section about Creating a Popup Menu.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Defining a Menu in XML

  • For all menu types, Android provides a standard XML format to define menu items.

  • Instead of building a menu in your activity's code, you should define a menu and all its items in an XML menu resource.

  • You can then inflate the menu resource (load it as a Menu object) in your activity or fragment.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Using a menu resource is a good practice for a few reasons:

  • It's easier to visualize the menu structure in XML.

  • It separates the content for the menu from your application's behavioral code.

  • It allows you to create alternative menu configurations for different platform versions, screen sizes, and other configurations by leveraging the app resources framework.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • To define the menu, create an XML file inside your project's res/menu/ directory and build the menu with the following elements:

  • <menu>

  • Defines a Menu, which is a container for menu items.

  • A <menu> element must be the root node for the file and can hold one or more <item> and <group> elements.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • <item>

  • Creates a MenuItem, which represents a single item in a menu.

  • This element may contain a nested <menu> element in order to create a submenu.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • <group>

  • An optional, invisible container for <item> elements.

  • It allows you to categorize menu items so they share properties such as active state and visibility.

  • For more information, see the section about Creating Menu Groups.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Here's an example menu named game_menu.xml:

  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><menu xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">    <item android:id="@+id/new_game"android:icon="@drawable/ic_new_game"android:title="@string/new_game"android:showAsAction="ifRoom"/>    <item android:id="@+id/help"android:icon="@drawable/ic_help"android:title="@string/help" /></menu>


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The <item> element supports several attributes you can use to define an item's appearance and behavior.

  • The items in the above menu include the following attributes:

  • android:id

  • A resource ID that's unique to the item, which allows the application can recognize the item when the user selects it.

  • android:icon

  • A reference to a drawable to use as the item's icon.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • android:title

  • A reference to a string to use as the item's title.

  • android:showAsAction

  • Specifies when and how this item should appear as an action item in the action bar.

  • These are the most important attributes you should use, but there are many more available. For information about all the supported attributes, see the Menu Resource document.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • You can add a submenu to an item in any menu (except a submenu) by adding a <menu> element as the child of an <item>.

  • Submenus are useful when your application has a lot of functions that can be organized into topics, like items in a PC application's menu bar (File, Edit, View, etc.).

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><menu xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">    <item android:id="@+id/file"android:title="@string/file" >        <!-- "file" submenu -->        <menu>            <item android:id="@+id/create_new"android:title="@string/create_new" />            <item android:id="@+id/open"android:title="@string/open" />        </menu>    </item></menu>


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • To use the menu in your activity, you need to inflate the menu resource (convert the XML resource into a programmable object) using MenuInflater.inflate().

  • In the following sections, you'll see how to inflate a menu for each menu type.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Creating an Options Menu

  • The options menu is where you should include actions and other options that are relevant to the current activity context, such as "Search," "Compose email," and "Settings."

  • Where the items in your options menu appear on the screen depends on the version for which you've developed your application:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [1] If you've developed your application for Android 2.3.x (API level 10) or lower, the contents of your options menu appear at the bottom of the screen when the user presses the Menu button, as shown in figure 1.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Figure 1. Options menu in the Browser, on Android 2.3.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • When opened, the first visible portion is the icon menu, which holds up to six menu items.

  • If your menu includes more than six items, Android places the sixth item and the rest into the overflow menu, which the user can open by selecting More.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [2] If you've developed your application for Android 3.0 (API level 11) and higher, items from the options menu are available in the action bar.

  • By default, the system places all items in the action overflow, which the user can reveal with the action overflow icon on the right side of the action bar (or by pressing the device Menu button, if available).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • To enable quick access to important actions, you can promote a few items to appear in the action bar by adding android:showAsAction="ifRoom" to the corresponding <item> elements (see figure 2).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Figure 2. Action bar from the Honeycomb Gallery app, showing navigation tabs and a camera action item (plus the action overflow button).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • For more information about action items and other action bar behaviors, see the Action Bar guide.

  • Note: Even if you're not developing for Android 3.0 or higher, you can build your own action bar layout for a similar effect.

  • For an example of how you can support older versions of Android with an action bar, see the Action Bar Compatibility sample.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • You can declare items for the options menu from either your Activity subclass or a Fragment subclass.

  • If both your activity and fragment(s) declare items for the options menu, they are combined in the UI.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The activity's items appear first, followed by those of each fragment in the order in which each fragment is added to the activity.

  • If necessary, you can re-order the menu items with the android:orderInCategory attribute in each <item> you need to move.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • To specify the options menu for an activity, override onCreateOptionsMenu() (fragments provide their own onCreateOptionsMenu() callback).

  • In this method, you can inflate your menu resource (defined in XML) into the Menu provided in the callback.

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • @Overridepublic booleanonCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {MenuInflaterinflater = getMenuInflater();inflater.inflate(R.menu.game_menu, menu);    return true;}

  • You can also add menu items using add() and retrieve items with findItem() to revise their properties with MenuItem APIs.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • If you've developed your application for Android 2.3.x and lower, the system calls onCreateOptionsMenu() to create the options menu when the user opens the menu for the first time.

  • If you've developed for Android 3.0 and higher, the system calls onCreateOptionsMenu() when starting the activity, in order to show items to the action bar.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Handling click events

  • When the user selects an item from the options menu (including action items in the action bar), the system calls your activity's onOptionsItemSelected() method.

  • This method passes the MenuItem selected.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • You can identify the item by calling getItemId(), which returns the unique ID for the menu item (defined by the android:id attribute in the menu resource or with an integer given to the add() method).

  • You can match this ID against known menu items to perform the appropriate action.

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • @Overridepublic booleanonOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {    // Handle item selection    switch (item.getItemId()) {        case R.id.new_game:newGame();            return true;        case R.id.help:showHelp();            return true;        default:            return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);    }}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • When you successfully handle a menu item, return true.

  • If you don't handle the menu item, you should call the superclass implementation of onOptionsItemSelected() (the default implementation returns false).

  • If your activity includes fragments, the system first calls onOptionsItemSelected() for the activity then for each fragment (in the order each fragment was added) until one returns true or all fragments have been called.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Tip: Android 3.0 adds the ability for you to define the on-click behavior for a menu item in XML, using the android:onClick attribute.

  • The value for the attribute must be the name of a method defined by the activity using the menu.

  • The method must be public and accept a single MenuItem parameter—when the system calls this method, it passes the menu item selected.

  • For more information and an example, see the Menu Resource document.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Tip: If your application contains multiple activities and some of them provide the same options menu, consider creating an activity that implements nothing except the onCreateOptionsMenu() and onOptionsItemSelected() methods.

  • Then extend this class for each activity that should share the same options menu.

  • This way, you can manage one set of code for handling menu actions and each descendant class inherits the menu behaviors.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • If you want to add menu items to one of the descendant activities, override onCreateOptionsMenu() in that activity.

  • Call super.onCreateOptionsMenu(menu) so the original menu items are created, then add new menu items with menu.add().

  • You can also override the super class's behavior for individual menu items.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Changing menu items at runtime

  • After the system calls onCreateOptionsMenu(), it retains an instance of the Menu you populate and will not call onCreateOptionsMenu() again unless the menu is invalidated for some reason.

  • However, you should use onCreateOptionsMenu() only to create the initial menu state and not to make changes during the activity lifecycle.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • If you want to modify the options menu based on events that occur during the activity lifecycle, you can do so in the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method.

  • This method passes you the Menu object as it currently exists so you can modify it, such as add, remove, or disable items.

  • (Fragments also provide an onPrepareOptionsMenu() callback.)


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • On Android 2.3.x and lower, the system calls onPrepareOptionsMenu() each time the user opens the options menu (presses the Menu button).

  • On Android 3.0 and higher, the options menu is considered to always be open when menu items are presented in the action bar.

  • When an event occurs and you want to perform a menu update, you must call invalidateOptionsMenu() to request that the system call onPrepareOptionsMenu().


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note: You should never change items in the options menu based on the View currently in focus.

  • When in touch mode (when the user is not using a trackball or d-pad), views cannot take focus, so you should never use focus as the basis for modifying items in the options menu.

  • If you want to provide menu items that are context-sensitive to a View, use a Context Menu.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Creating Contextual Menus

  • A contextual menu offers actions that affect a specific item or context frame in the UI.

  • You can provide a context menu for any view, but they are most often used for items in a ListView, GridView, or other view collections in which the user can perform direct actions on each item.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • There are two ways to provide contextual actions:

  • [1] In a floating context menu.

  • A menu appears as a floating list of menu items (similar to a dialog) when the user performs a long-click (press and hold) on a view that declares support for a context menu.

  • Users can perform a contextual action on one item at a time.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [2] In the contextual action mode.

  • This mode is a system implementation of ActionMode that displays a contextual action bar at the top of the screen with action items that affect the selected item(s).

  • When this mode is active, users can perform an action on multiple items at once (if your app allows it).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Figure 3. Screenshots of a floating context menu (left) and the contextual action bar (right).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note: The contextual action mode is available on Android 3.0 (API level 11) and higher and is the preferred technique for displaying contextual actions when available.

  • If your app supports versions lower than 3.0 then you should fall back to a floating context menu on those devices.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Creating a floating context menu

  • To provide a floating context menu:

  • [1] Register the View to which the context menu should be associated by calling registerForContextMenu() and pass it the View.

  • If your activity uses a ListView or GridView and you want each item to provide the same context menu, register all items for a context menu by passing the ListView or GridView to registerForContextMenu().


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [2] Implement the onCreateContextMenu() method in your Activity or Fragment.

  • When the registered view receives a long-click event, the system calls your onCreateContextMenu() method.

  • This is where you define the menu items, usually by inflating a menu resource.

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • @Overridepublic void onCreateContextMenu(ContextMenu menu, View v,ContextMenuInfomenuInfo) {super.onCreateContextMenu(menu, v, menuInfo);MenuInflaterinflater = getMenuInflater();inflater.inflate(R.menu.context_menu, menu);}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • MenuInflater allows you to inflate the context menu from a menu resource.

  • The callback method parameters include the View that the user selected and a ContextMenu.ContextMenuInfo object that provides additional information about the item selected.

  • If your activity has several views that each provide a different context menu, you might use these parameters to determine which context menu to inflate.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [3] Implement onContextItemSelected().

  • When the user selects a menu item, the system calls this method so you can perform the appropriate action.

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • @Overridepublic booleanonContextItemSelected(MenuItem item) {AdapterContextMenuInfo info = (AdapterContextMenuInfo) item.getMenuInfo();    switch (item.getItemId()) {        case R.id.edit:editNote(info.id);            return true;        case R.id.delete:deleteNote(info.id);            return true;        default:            return super.onContextItemSelected(item);    }}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The getItemId() method queries the ID for the selected menu item, which you should assign to each menu item in XML using the android:id attribute, as shown in the section about Defining a Menu in XML.

  • When you successfully handle a menu item, return true. If you don't handle the menu item, you should pass the menu item to the superclass implementation.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • If your activity includes fragments, the activity receives this callback first.

  • By calling the superclass when unhandled, the system passes the event to the respective callback method in each fragment, one at a time (in the order each fragment was added) until true or false is returned.

  • (The default implementation for Activity and android.app.Fragment return false, so you should always call the superclass when unhandled.)


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Using the contextual action mode

  • The contextual action mode is a system implementation of ActionMode that focuses user interaction toward performing contextual actions.

  • When a user enables this mode by selecting an item, a contextual action bar appears at the top of the screen to present actions the user can perform on the currently selected item(s).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • While this mode is enabled, the user can select multiple items (if you allow it), deselect items, and continue to navigate within the activity (as much as you're willing to allow).

  • The action mode is disabled and the contextual action bar disappears when the user deselects all items, presses the BACK button, or selects the Done action on the left side of the bar.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note: The contextual action bar is not necessarily associated with the action bar. They operate independently, even though the contextual action bar visually overtakes the action bar position.

  • If you're developing for Android 3.0 (API level 11) or higher, you should usually use the contextual action mode to present contextual actions, instead of the floating context menu.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • For views that provide contextual actions, you should usually invoke the contextual action mode upon one of two events (or both):

  • The user performs a long-click on the view.

  • The user selects a checkbox or similar UI component within the view.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • How your application invokes the contextual action mode and defines the behavior for each action depends on your design.

  • There are basically two designs:

  • For contextual actions on individual, arbitrary views.

  • For batch contextual actions on groups of items in a ListView or GridView (allowing the user to select multiple items and perform an action on them all).

  • The following sections describe the setup required for each scenario.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Enabling the contextual action mode for individual views

  • If you want to invoke the contextual action mode only when the user selects specific views, you should:

  • 1. Implement the ActionMode.Callback interface.

  • In its callback methods, you can specify the actions for the contextual action bar, respond to click events on action items, and handle other lifecycle events for the action mode.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • 2. Call startActionMode() when you want to show the bar (such as when the user long-clicks the view).

  • For example:

  • 1. Implement the ActionMode.Callback interface:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [Notice that this is one big anonymous inner class.]

  • private ActionMode.CallbackmActionModeCallback = new ActionMode.Callback() {    // Called when the action mode is created; startActionMode() was called    @Override    public booleanonCreateActionMode(ActionMode mode, Menu menu) {        // Inflate a menu resource providing context menu itemsMenuInflaterinflater = mode.getMenuInflater();inflater.inflate(R.menu.context_menu, menu);        return true;    }    // Called each time the action mode is shown. Always called after onCreateActionMode, but    // may be called multiple times if the mode is invalidated.    @Override    public booleanonPrepareActionMode(ActionMode mode, Menu menu) {        return false; // Return false if nothing is done    }


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  •     // Called when the user selects a contextual menu item    @Override    public booleanonActionItemClicked(ActionMode mode, MenuItem item) {        switch (item.getItemId()) {            case R.id.menu_share:shareCurrentItem();mode.finish(); // Action picked, so close the CAB                return true;            default:                return false;        }    }    // Called when the user exits the action mode    @Override    public void onDestroyActionMode(ActionMode mode) {mActionMode = null;    }};


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Notice that these event callbacks are almost exactly the same as the callbacks for the options menu, except each of these also pass the ActionMode object associated with the event.

  • You can use ActionMode APIs to make various changes to the CAB, such as revise the title and subtitle with setTitle() and setSubtitle() (useful to indicate how many items are selected).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Also notice that the above sample sets the mActionMode variable null when the action mode is destroyed.

  • In the next step, you'll see how it's initialized and how saving the member variable in your activity or fragment can be useful.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • 2. Call startActionMode() to enable the contextual action mode when appropriate, such as in response to a long-click on a View:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • someView.setOnLongClickListener(new View.OnLongClickListener() {    // Called when the user long-clicks on someView    public booleanonLongClick(View view) {        if (mActionMode != null) {            return false;        }        // Start the CAB using the ActionMode.Callback defined abovemActionMode = getActivity().startActionMode(mActionModeCallback);view.setSelected(true);        return true;    }});


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • When you call startActionMode(), the system returns the ActionMode created.

  • By saving this in a member variable, you can make changes to the contextual action bar in response to other events.

  • In the above sample, the ActionMode is used to ensure that the ActionMode instance is not recreated if it's already active, by checking whether the member is null before starting the action mode.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Enabling batch contextual actions in a ListView or GridView

  • If you have a collection of items in a ListView or GridView (or another extension of AbsListView) and want to allow users to perform batch actions, you should:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [1] Implement the AbsListView.MultiChoiceModeListener interface and set it for the view group with setMultiChoiceModeListener().

  • In the listener's callback methods, you can specify the actions for the contextual action bar, respond to click events on action items, and handle other callbacks inherited from the ActionMode.Callback interface.

  • [2] Call setChoiceMode() with the CHOICE_MODE_MULTIPLE_MODAL argument.

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [An anonymous inner class again.]

  • ListViewlistView = getListView();listView.setChoiceMode(ListView.CHOICE_MODE_MULTIPLE_MODAL);listView.setMultiChoiceModeListener(new MultiChoiceModeListener() {    @Override    public void onItemCheckedStateChanged(ActionMode mode, int position,                                          long id, boolean checked) {        // Here you can do something when items are selected/de-selected,        // such as update the title in the CAB    }    @Override    public booleanonActionItemClicked(ActionMode mode, MenuItem item) {        // Respond to clicks on the actions in the CAB        switch (item.getItemId()) {            case R.id.menu_delete:deleteSelectedItems();mode.finish(); // Action picked, so close the CAB                return true;            default:                return false;        }    }


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  •     @Override    public booleanonCreateActionMode(ActionMode mode, Menu menu) {        // Inflate the menu for the CABMenuInflaterinflater = mode.getMenuInflater();inflater.inflate(R.menu.context, menu);        return true;    }    @Override    public void onDestroyActionMode(ActionMode mode) {        // Here you can make any necessary updates to the activity when        // the CAB is removed. By default, selected items are deselected/unchecked.    }    @Override    public booleanonPrepareActionMode(ActionMode mode, Menu menu) {        // Here you can perform updates to the CAB due to        // an invalidate() request        return false;    }});

  • [The closing ‘)’ reminds us that the anonymous inner class is defined as the parameter to a method call.]


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • That's it.

  • [Yeah, uh-huh.]

  • Now when the user selects an item with a long-click, the system calls the onCreateActionMode() method and displays the contextual action bar with the specified actions.

  • While the contextual action bar is visible, users can select additional items.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • In some cases in which the contextual actions provide common action items, you might want to add a checkbox or a similar UI element that allows users to select items, because they might not discover the long-click behavior.

  • When a user selects the checkbox, you can invoke the contextual action mode by setting the respective list item to the checked state with setItemChecked().


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Creating a Popup Menu

  • A PopupMenu is a modal menu anchored to a View.

  • It appears below the anchor view if there is room, or above the view otherwise.

  • It's useful for:

  • [1] Providing an overflow-style menu for actions that relate to specific content (such as Gmail's email headers, shown in figure 4).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Figure 4. A popup menu in the Gmail app, anchored to the overflow button at the top-right.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note: This is not the same as a context menu, which is generally for actions that affect selected content.

  • For actions that affect selected content, use the contextual action mode or floating context menu.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • [2] Providing a second part of a command sentence (such as a button marked "Add" that produces a popup menu with different "Add" options).

  • [3] Providing a drop-down similar to Spinner that does not retain a persistent selection.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note:PopupMenu is available with API level 11 and higher.

  • If you define your menu in XML, here's how you can show the popup menu:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • 1. Instantatea PopupMenu with its constructor, which takes the current application Context and the View to which the menu should be anchored.

  • 2. Use MenuInflater to inflate your menu resource into the Menu object returned by PopupMenu.getMenu().

  • On API level 14 and above, you can use PopupMenu.inflate() instead.

  • 3. Call PopupMenu.show().


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • For example, here's a button with the android:onClick attribute that shows a popup menu:

  • <ImageButtonandroid:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:src="@drawable/ic_overflow_holo_dark"android:contentDescription="@string/descr_overflow_button"android:onClick="showPopup" />


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The activity can then show the popup menu like this:

  • public void showPopup(View v) {PopupMenu popup = new PopupMenu(this, v);MenuInflaterinflater = popup.getMenuInflater();inflater.inflate(R.menu.actions, popup.getMenu());popup.show();}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • In API level 14 and higher, you can combine the two lines that inflate the menu with PopupMenu.inflate().

  • The menu is dismissed when the user selects an item or touches outside the menu area.

  • You can listen for the dismiss event using PopupMenu.OnDismissListener.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Handling click events

  • To perform an action when the user selects a menu item, you must implement the PopupMenu.OnMenuItemClickListener interface and register it with your PopupMenu by calling setOnMenuItemclickListener().

  • When the user selects an item, the system calls the onMenuItemClick() callback in your interface.

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • public void showMenu(View v) {PopupMenu popup = new PopupMenu(this, v);    // This activity implements OnMenuItemClickListenerpopup.setOnMenuItemClickListener(this);popup.inflate(R.menu.actions);popup.show();[email protected] booleanonMenuItemClick(MenuItem item) {    switch (item.getItemId()) {        case R.id.archive:            archive(item);            return true;        case R.id.delete:            delete(item);            return true;        default:            return false;    }}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Creating Menu Groups

  • A menu group is a collection of menu items that share certain traits.

  • With a group, you can:

  • [1] Show or hide all items with setGroupVisible()

  • [2] Enable or disable all items with setGroupEnabled()

  • [3] Specify whether all items are checkable with setGroupCheckable()


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • You can create a group by nesting <item> elements inside a <group> element in your menu resource or by specifying a group ID with the add() method.

  • Here's an example menu resource that includes a group:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><menu xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">    <item android:id="@+id/menu_save"android:icon="@drawable/menu_save"android:title="@string/menu_save" />    <!-- menu group -->    <group android:id="@+id/group_delete">        <item android:id="@+id/menu_archive"android:title="@string/menu_archive" />        <item android:id="@+id/menu_delete"android:title="@string/menu_delete" />    </group></menu>


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The items that are in the group appear at the same level as the first item—all three items in the menu are siblings.

  • However, you can modify the traits of the two items in the group by referencing the group ID and using the methods listed above.

  • The system will also never separate grouped items.

  • For example, if you declare android:showAsAction="ifRoom" for each item, they will either both appear in the action bar or both appear in the action overflow.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Using checkable menu items

  • A menu can be useful as an interface for turning options on and off, using a checkbox for stand-alone options, or radio buttons for groups of mutually exclusive options.

  • Figure 5 shows a submenu with items that are checkable with radio buttons.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Figure 5. Screenshot of a submenu with checkable items.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note: Menu items in the Icon Menu (from the options menu) cannot display a checkbox or radio button.

  • If you choose to make items in the Icon Menu checkable, you must manually indicate the checked state by swapping the icon and/or text each time the state changes.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • You can define the checkable behavior for individual menu items using the android:checkable attribute in the <item> element, or for an entire group with the android:checkableBehavior attribute in the <group> element.

  • For example, all items in this menu group are checkable with a radio button:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><menu xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">    <group android:checkableBehavior="single">        <item android:id="@+id/red"android:title="@string/red" />        <item android:id="@+id/blue"android:title="@string/blue" />    </group></menu>


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • The android:checkableBehavior attribute accepts either:

  • single

  • Only one item from the group can be checked (radio buttons)

  • all

  • All items can be checked (checkboxes)

  • none

  • No items are checkable

  • You can apply a default checked state to an item using the android:checked attribute in the <item> element and change it in code with the setChecked() method.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • When a checkable item is selected, the system calls your respective item-selected callback method (such as onOptionsItemSelected()).

  • It is here that you must set the state of the checkbox, because a checkbox or radio button does not change its state automatically.

  • You can query the current state of the item (as it was before the user selected it) with isChecked() and then set the checked state with setChecked(). For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • @Overridepublic booleanonOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {    switch (item.getItemId()) {        case R.id.vibrate:        case R.id.dont_vibrate:            if (item.isChecked()) item.setChecked(false);            else item.setChecked(true);            return true;        default:            return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);    }}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • If you don't set the checked state this way, then the visible state of the item (the checkbox or radio button) will not change when the user selects it.

  • When you do set the state, the activity preserves the checked state of the item so that when the user opens the menu later, the checked state that you set is visible.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note: Checkable menu items are intended to be used only on a per-session basis and not saved after the application is destroyed.

  • If you have application settings that you would like to save for the user, you should store the data using Shared Preferences.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Adding Menu Items Based on an Intent

  • Sometimes you'll want a menu item to launch an activity using an Intent (whether it's an activity in your application or another application).

  • When you know the intent you want to use and have a specific menu item that should initiate the intent, you can execute the intent with startActivity() during the appropriate on-item-selected callback method (such as the onOptionsItemSelected() callback).


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • However, if you are not certain that the user's device contains an application that handles the intent, then adding a menu item that invokes it can result in a non-functioning menu item, because the intent might not resolve to an activity.

  • To solve this, Android lets you dynamically add menu items to your menu when Android finds activities on the device that handle your intent.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • To add menu items based on available activities that accept an intent:

  • 1. Define an intent with the category CATEGORY_ALTERNATIVE and/or CATEGORY_SELECTED_ALTERNATIVE, plus any other requirements.

  • 2. Call Menu.addIntentOptions().

  • Android then searches for any applications that can perform the intent and adds them to your menu.

  • If there are no applications installed that satisfy the intent, then no menu items are added.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Note:CATEGORY_SELECTED_ALTERNATIVE is used to handle the currently selected element on the screen.

  • So, it should only be used when creating a Menu in onCreateContextMenu().

  • For example:


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • @Overridepublic booleanonCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu){super.onCreateOptionsMenu(menu);    // Create an Intent that describes the requirements to fulfill, to be included    // in our menu. The offering app must include a category value of Intent.CATEGORY_ALTERNATIVE.    Intent intent = new Intent(null, dataUri);intent.addCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_ALTERNATIVE);    // Search and populate the menu with acceptable offering applications.menu.addIntentOptions(R.id.intent_group,  // Menu group to which new items will be added         0,      // Unique item ID (none)         0,      // Order for the items (none)this.getComponentName(),   // The current activity name         null,   // Specific items to place first (none)         intent, // Intent created above that describes our requirements         0,      // Additional flags to control items (none)         null);  // Array of MenuItems that correlate to specific items (none)    return true;}


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • For each activity found that provides an intent filter matching the intent defined, a menu item is added, using the value in the intent filter's android:label as the menu item title and the application icon as the menu item icon.

  • The addIntentOptions() method returns the number of menu items added.

  • Note: When you call addIntentOptions(), it overrides any and all menu items by the menu group specified in the first argument.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Allowing your activity to be added to other menus

  • You can also offer the services of your activity to other applications, so your application can be included in the menu of others (reverse the roles described above).

  • To be included in other application menus, you need to define an intent filter as usual, but be sure to include the CATEGORY_ALTERNATIVE and/or CATEGORY_SELECTED_ALTERNATIVE values for the intent filter category.


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • For example:

  • <intent-filter label="@string/resize_image">    ...    <category android:name="android.intent.category.ALTERNATIVE" />    <category android:name="android.intent.category.SELECTED_ALTERNATIVE" />    ...</intent-filter>


Android 10 events menus and the action bar

  • Read more about writing intent filters in the Intents and Intent Filters document.

  • For a sample application using this technique, see the Note Pad sample code.


Summary and mission

Summary and Mission

  • This unit contained items that you can pick from when deciding what you want to do for part 2 of the second assignment.


The end

The End


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