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ESP: Business Writing. business letters reports minutes of meetings proposals contracts sales reports advertisements. Outdated Views of Writing.  Seen as just a way to record speech.  Viewed as important in reinforcing speaking ability.

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ESP: Business Writing

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Esp business writing

ESP: Business Writing

  • business letters

  • reports

  • minutes of meetings

  • proposals

  • contracts

  • sales reports

  • advertisements


Outdated views of writing

Outdated Views of Writing

 Seen as just a way to record speech.

 Viewed as important in reinforcing speaking ability.

 Justified the view that “anyone who had

the knowledge of spelling and grammar would be able to write” (2002: 251).

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, p. 232.


Levels of writing

Levels of Writing

 Orthography (Spelling)

 Phrases and Sentences

 Paragraphs

 Essays or other complete texts

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor, An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, Chapter 14, pp. 251-266. London: Arnold, p. 251ff.


Aspects of writing

Aspects of Writing

 Relational Aspect of Writing

 Strategic Aspect of Writing

 Textual Aspect of Writing

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 233-237.


Relational aspect elements of writing

Relational Aspect: Elements of Writing

 Writer

 Reader

 Text

 Reality

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 232-234.


Audience for schmidt s book

Audience for Schmidt’s book

"For example, this chapter addresses you, the reader, who may be beginning applied linguists—perhaps a graduate student in an introductory applied linguistics course. At the same time, this chapter invokes readers who may not be familiar with writing issues but are certainly intelligent and inquisitive, wanting to understand theory and research as well as pedagogy. This imagined audience role is invoked by the ‘content’ (for example, the choice of topics, the amount of and type of explanations and examples) as well as the ‘form’ (for example, the use or non-use of certain technical terms, strategies for referencing sources)."

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 233-234.


Purposes of writing

Purposes of Writing

 Expressive(Focus on writer)

 Persuasive(Focus on reader)

 Referential(Focus on reality)

 Literary(Focus on text)

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, p. 235.


Three stages of writing process

Three Stages of Writing Process

1.Planning

2.Drafting

3.Revising

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 235-236.


Writing stages strategies recursive process 1

Writing Stages / StrategiesRecursive Process 1

1. Planning

1. Identify primary purpose or aim

2. Select topic

3. Identify, develop, and assess rhetorical

appeals

2. Drafting

1. Writing something down

2. Translate something you wrote in L1

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 235-236.


Writing stages strategies recursive process 2

Writing Stages / StrategiesRecursive Process 2

3. Revising

1. Revise based on feedback

2. Let it sit a while

3. Edit and Proofread

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 235-236.


Textual aspects of writing

Textual Aspects of Writing

 Ideational, textual, and interpersonal meaning

 Typographical features

 Discursive features

 Discursive identity / voice

 Lexical, syntactic, idiomatic knowledge

 Cohesion

 Coherence

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 236-237.


Second language writing approaches and issues

Second Language Writing: Approaches and Issues

1. Controlled Composition

2. The Paragraph Pattern Approach

(with models)

3. The Process Approach

4. Genre-Based Approach

5. Issues that Transcend Traditions

Silva, Tony and Paul Kei Matsuda. 2002. Writing. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 14, pp. 232-246. London: Hodder Education, pp. 238-244.


Controlled composition rationale

Controlled Composition Rationale

“Controlled composition is used in two situations: for pupils who are just learning to read and write (either in their mother tongue or in a second language), and for pupils who are learning to write in a second language. At the beginning stages of language learning it is important to avoid making and repeating errors, because those errors will become a habit. By providing a limited and specified vocabulary and sentence patterns the pupil avoids many errors that would be made if they were asked to choose all of their own words and make up their own sentences. Secondly, beginners do not know how to spell a great many English words. In a controlled writing exercise they will be practising correct spelling as well as punctuation. They will be forming accurate language habits.

Apart from helping reduce errors, controlled composition causes pupils to think as they use the language. Pupils must take some choices in controlled composition exercises. They must read and understand the material that has been specified, but they also must think as they manipulate the language and practice their language skills. Simply copying a passage or sentences does not cause them to think and problem-solve.”

Source:http://207.106.6.237/uganda_ptc/Language%20Education/Unit%208/Topics/top1purpose.htm. (Retrieved: December 3, 2010.)


Controlled composition exercises outline

Controlled Composition Exercises (Outline)

(i)Gap-filling techniques

(ii)Multiple choice

(iii)Limited substitution table

(iv)Sentence sequencing

(v)Sentence connecting

(vi)Chalkboard composition

(vii)Punctuation practice

(viii)Dictation

Source:http://207.106.6.237/uganda_ptc/Language%20Education/Unit%208/Topics/top1techniques.htm . (Retrieved: December 3, 2010.)


Controlled composition exercises 1

Controlled Composition Exercises 1

(i)  Gap-filling techniques

On the way she …. a woman who asked her …. she was going.

(ii)   Multiple choice

Thegirlspupils wanted to have their first volleyball game. boys

The children (practise/practises) their writing at home.

Source:http://207.106.6.237/uganda_ptc/Language%20Education/Unit%208/Topics/top1techniques.htm . (Retrieved: December 3, 2010.)


Controlled composition exercises 2

Controlled Composition Exercises 2

iii)    The limited substitution table

Last week Peter walked tothe market

Monday Marydrove the village

month my parents rode the church

the office

Source:http://207.106.6.237/uganda_ptc/Language%20Education/Unit%208/Topics/top1techniques.htm . (Retrieved: December 3, 2010.)


Controlled composition exercises 3

Controlled Composition Exercises 3

(iv)  Sentence sequencing (Put the sentences in order.)

__ Drop a small stone into the middle of the bowl.

__ Does it get carried to the side of the bowl.

__ Fill a bowl nearly to the top with water.

__ Observe the movement of the match.

__ Float a match on the surface.

__ Observe the small waves.

Source:http://207.106.6.237/uganda_ptc/Language%20Education/Unit%208/Topics/top1techniques.htm . (Retrieved: December 3, 2010.)


Controlled composition exercises 4

Controlled Composition Exercises 4

(v)Sentence connecting

Mary went to town. She bought some tea.Mary went to town and bought some tea.

He looked at a table. The table was near the door. He looked at a table which was near the door.

Source:http://207.106.6.237/uganda_ptc/Language%20Education/Unit%208/Topics/top1techniques.htm . (Retrieved: December 3, 2010.)


Controlled composition exercises 5

Controlled Composition Exercises 5

(vi)Chalkboard composition

(vii)Punctuation practice

(viii)Dictation

Source:http://207.106.6.237/uganda_ptc/Language%20Education/Unit%208/Topics/top1techniques.htm . (Retrieved: December 3, 2010.)


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