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SUSTAINABLE GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 2008 MONITORING PROGRAMME. Dr Stephen Baker Sports Turf Research Institute, UK. DGB WORKING GROUP. Six courses Twenty greens (good, medium, poor) Sustainable management-reduced fertiliser, irrigation, pesticides, fungicides Regular over-sowing with Festuca.

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Sustainable golf course management 2008 monitoring programme

SUSTAINABLE GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT2008 MONITORING PROGRAMME

Dr Stephen Baker

Sports Turf Research Institute, UK


Dgb working group
DGB WORKING GROUP

  • Six courses

  • Twenty greens (good, medium, poor)

  • Sustainable management-reduced fertiliser, irrigation, pesticides, fungicides

  • Regular over-sowing with Festuca


Information
INFORMATION

  • DGB data base

  • Management inputs

  • STRI visit September 2008


Information1

DGB data base

INFORMATION

  • Good at picking up changes during the year

  • Good records at some sites

  • Danger of some variation because of different operators

  • Considerable amounts of missing data

Management inputs

  • Generally good records available

STRI visit

  • Consistency in data collection

  • Good for recording factors that change slowly

  • Very poor for seasonal trends


Data analysed
DATA ANALYSED

DGB DATABASE

  • Sward factors – species composition, thatch depth

  • Soil Properties – infiltration rate, pH, CEC

  • Playing quality – Stimpmeter, Turf thumper

  • Disease and pests

  • Management inputs – nutrients, aeration, overseeding, etc


Data analysed1
DATA ANALYSED

STRI September visit

  • Grass cover and species composition

  • Organic matter content

  • pH, P, K, Mg, Ca

  • Soil water content


Grass species
GRASS SPECIES

Dormant grasses

  • Festuca - 14 greens

  • Agrostis - 5 greens

  • Poa annua - 1 green

    Overall 60 % Festuca

    28% Agrostis

    12% Poa annua


PROPERTY

UNITS

MEAN ALL CLUBS

IQR+

RANGE

Grass properties

Total cover

%

93

90 - 95

88 - 95

Festuca

%

60

37 - 82

17 - 98

Agrostis

%

28

15 - 39

0 - 57

Poa annua

%

12

3 - 19

1 - 45


PROPERTY

UNITS

MEAN ALL CLUBS

IQR+

RANGE

Root depth - Main

mm

86

69 - 99

63 - 127

- Max

mm

186

171 - 211

86 - 238


PROPERTY

UNITS

MEAN ALL CLUBS

IQR+

RANGE

Soil properties

Infiltration rate

mm/h

244

126 - 225

43 - 806

0-20 mm

Organic matter

%

6.2

5.20 - 6.90

2.9 - 12.0

20-40 mm

%

4.5

3.38 - 5.55

2.8 - 6.9

40-60 mm

%

3.3

2.80 - 3.78

1.4 - 5.7

60-80 mm

%

2.6

2.08 - 3.15

1.4 - 5.7


PROPERTY

UNITS

MEAN ALL CLUBS

IQR+

RANGE

pH

(1:1 CaCl2)

5.3

5.2 - 5.4

4.0 - 7.0

P

mg/l

24

20 - 28

9 - 46

K

mg/l

83

53 - 99

30 - 193

Mg

mg/l

60

39 - 76

22 - 149

Ca

mg/l

277

91 - 325

65 - 1000


PROPERTY

UNITS

MEAN ALL CLUBS

IQR+

RANGE

Chemical input

Total N

kg/ha

85

70 - 101

56 - 123

Total P

kg/ha

24

16 - 25

12 - 17

Total K

kg/ha

137

82 - 158

52 - 266

Iron sulphate

kg/ha

29

7 - 46

0 - 69


PROPERTY

UNITS

MEAN ALL CLUBS

IQR+

RANGE

Playing quality

Stimpmeter: Apr-Sept

Feet

7.0

6.4 - 7.5

6.1 - 8.1


Depth

Recommended limits

Mean

Number of cases exceeding limit

(out of twenty sets of core data)

ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT

0-20 mm

7.5%

6.2 %

4

20-40 mm

5.5%

4.5 %

5

40-60 mm

4.5%

3.3 %

3

60-80 mm

3.0%

2.6 %

6


COMPARISON OF MEASURED VALUES FOR THE BEST, INTERMEDIATE AND WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSES

Parameter

Green type

Good

Intermediate

Poor

Species composition (%)

Festuca

62

65

46

Agrostis

30

24

34

Poa

7

11

21

Total cover

92

93

93

Depth of main root system (mm)

88

87

76

Maximum root length (mm)

192

194

163

Organic matter content (%)

0-20 mm

5.7

5.9

6.7

Green speed (feet) (Apr-Sept)

7.01

6.87

6.86

No Consistent effects of pH, nutrient content or organic matter at depth


Festuca WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSES content

Agrostis content

Poa annua content

Positive

0.53 pH (water)

0.66 Organic matter

0.74 Organic matter

0.71 Max. root depth

Negative

– 0.78 Organic matter

–0.74 pH (water)

CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR SELECTED INDICATORS OF GREEN PERFORMANCE

AND SOIL AND MANAGEMENT PROPERTIES


ROOT DEPTH – MAIN ROOT MASS WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSES

ROOT DEPTH – MAXIMUM LENGTH

Positive

0.67 Mowing height

0.46 Phosphate application

0.62 Potassium application

0.71 Festuca

Negative

–0.49 pH (CaCl2)

–0.57 Water content (surface)

–0.50 Organic matter (40-60 mm)

–0.54 Water content (60 mm)

–0.47 Organic matter content

–0.50 Irrigation amount

–0.50 Overseeding

–0.56 Agrostis

–0.47 Poa annua


GREEN SPEED (APRIL-SEPTEMBER) WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSES

Positive

0.53 pH (CaCl2)

0.47 Calcium content

0.57 Root depth

0.53 Festuca content

Negative

–0.48 Water content (surface)

–0.60 Organic matter (surface)

–0.58 Irrigation amount

–0.60 Vertical mowing frequency

–0.65 Iron sulphate application

–0.57 Agrostis content


Temporal trends
TEMPORAL TRENDS WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSES

  • No attempt to assess changes over time at this early stage

  • Full data sets are needed, especially for factors such as green speed, hardness, disease and pests.


Key parameters in relation to resources available
KEY PARAMETERS WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSESIN RELATION TO RESOURCES AVAILABLE

  • Species composition, disease, pests, green speed, root length, water content, chemical properties, management programme

  • Firmness (ideally) Method

  • Water infiltration rates?


Modified clegg firmness meter
MODIFIED CLEGG FIRMNESS METER WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSES


St Ives Estate, Bingley, WORST GREENS FROM EACH OF THE SIX COURSES

West Yorkshire BD16 1AU

Tel (+44) 01274 565131

Fax (+44) 01274 561891

email: [email protected]

www.stri.co.uk


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