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Coupled Climate Models. OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS. What is climate?. Different meanings an external, forcing agent influence on society and socio-economics a background norm on which weather is imposed temperature, rain, and humidity. Climatic System. 5 Major Components Hydrosphere

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coupled climate models

Coupled Climate Models

OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE

INTERACTIONS

what is climate
What is climate?
  • Different meanings
    • an external, forcing agent
    • influence on society and socio-economics
    • a background norm on which weather is imposed
    • temperature, rain, and humidity
climatic system
Climatic System

5 Major Components

  • Hydrosphere
  • Atmosphere
  • Cryosphere
  • Lithosphere
  • Biosphere
why does climate vary
Why does climate vary?

VARIATIONS IN CLIMATE COMPONENTS

climate forcings the basis for change
Climate Forcings: the basis for change
  • Forcing: a change on the planetary energy balance system (flux)
  • 2 separate categories:
    • External Forcings
    • Internal Forcings
      • Human
      • Natural
climate forcings external
Climate Forcings: External
  • Milankovitch Cycles
    • Eccentricity
    • Obliquity
    • Precession
  • Solar Activity
  • Comet/meteorite impacts
climate forcings internal human induced
Greenhouse Gases

Tropospheric Aerosols

Ozone Depletion

Land Surface Changes

KNOWN FORCINGS

Climate Forcings: InternalHuman induced
climate forcings internal natural
Climate Forcings: InternalNatural
  • Ocean circulation changes
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Heat Transfer from interior
measurements that drive the models
Measurements that Drive the Models
  • Sea surface temperature
  • Air temperature and humidity
  • Wind velocity
  • Net radiation flux at ocean and underlying surfaces and upper atmospheric boundary
  • Fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture at the ocean-atmosphere boundary
general circulation model gcm
General Circulation Model: GCM
  • 3-dimensional model
    • scaling issues
general circulation model gcm1
General Circulation Model: GCM
  • Solve for the main features of the atmosphere and ocean through a series of equations
agcm variables
AGCM variables
  • Surface Pressure
  • 2 horizontal wind components
  • Temperature
  • Moisture
  • Geopotential height
agcm physical processes
AGCM: Physical Processes
  • Radiative Transfer
    • daily and annular cycles
    • short- and long-wave
    • clouds
  • Boundary Layer
    • friction
    • diurnal temperature and humidity variations
agcm physical processes1
AGCM: Physical Processes
  • Large-scale rainfall
  • Convection
agcm physical processes2
AGCM: Physical Processes
  • Land Surface Parameterization
    • gravity wave drag
oceanic gcm
Oceanic GCM
  • Drivers
    • Winds
    • Salinity and density
  • Detailed schemes
    • Stronger currents on western sides of basin
ogcms
OGCMs
  • Swamp Model
  • Slab Model
  • Detailed Mixed Layer Model
  • Dynamic Ocean Model
other schemes
Other Schemes
  • Cyrosphere
    • hydrologic cycle
    • albedos
  • wind and heat
  • Vegetation
    • different scales
    • lack of validation data
aogcm problems
AOGCM Problems
  • Time Scales
  • Grid Scales
  • Costs
aogcm solutions
AOGCM Solutions
  • Asynchronous Coupling
conclusion
Conclusion

There is a long way to go before we have RELIABLE

Models with which to predict CLIMATE

and CLIMATE CHANGE …

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