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Coupled Climate Models. OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS. What is climate?. Different meanings an external, forcing agent influence on society and socio-economics a background norm on which weather is imposed temperature, rain, and humidity. Climatic System. 5 Major Components Hydrosphere

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Coupled climate models

Coupled Climate Models

OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE

INTERACTIONS


What is climate
What is climate?

  • Different meanings

    • an external, forcing agent

    • influence on society and socio-economics

    • a background norm on which weather is imposed

    • temperature, rain, and humidity


Climatic system
Climatic System

5 Major Components

  • Hydrosphere

  • Atmosphere

  • Cryosphere

  • Lithosphere

  • Biosphere


Why does climate vary
Why does climate vary?

VARIATIONS IN CLIMATE COMPONENTS


Climate forcings the basis for change
Climate Forcings: the basis for change

  • Forcing: a change on the planetary energy balance system (flux)

  • 2 separate categories:

    • External Forcings

    • Internal Forcings

      • Human

      • Natural


Climate forcings external
Climate Forcings: External

  • Milankovitch Cycles

    • Eccentricity

    • Obliquity

    • Precession

  • Solar Activity

  • Comet/meteorite impacts


Climate forcings internal human induced

Greenhouse Gases

Tropospheric Aerosols

Ozone Depletion

Land Surface Changes

KNOWN FORCINGS

Climate Forcings: InternalHuman induced


Climate forcings internal natural
Climate Forcings: InternalNatural

  • Ocean circulation changes

  • Volcanic eruptions

  • Heat Transfer from interior


Measurements that drive the models
Measurements that Drive the Models

  • Sea surface temperature

  • Air temperature and humidity

  • Wind velocity

  • Net radiation flux at ocean and underlying surfaces and upper atmospheric boundary

  • Fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture at the ocean-atmosphere boundary



General circulation model gcm
General Circulation Model: GCM

  • 3-dimensional model

    • scaling issues


General circulation model gcm1
General Circulation Model: GCM

  • Solve for the main features of the atmosphere and ocean through a series of equations



Agcm variables
AGCM variables

  • Surface Pressure

  • 2 horizontal wind components

  • Temperature

  • Moisture

  • Geopotential height


Agcm physical processes
AGCM: Physical Processes

  • Radiative Transfer

    • daily and annular cycles

    • short- and long-wave

    • clouds

  • Boundary Layer

    • friction

    • diurnal temperature and humidity variations


Agcm physical processes1
AGCM: Physical Processes

  • Large-scale rainfall

  • Convection


Agcm physical processes2
AGCM: Physical Processes

  • Land Surface Parameterization

    • gravity wave drag


Oceanic gcm
Oceanic GCM

  • Drivers

    • Winds

    • Salinity and density

  • Detailed schemes

    • Stronger currents on western sides of basin


Ogcms
OGCMs

  • Swamp Model

  • Slab Model

  • Detailed Mixed Layer Model

  • Dynamic Ocean Model



Other schemes
Other Schemes

  • Cyrosphere

    • hydrologic cycle

    • albedos

  • wind and heat

  • Vegetation

    • different scales

    • lack of validation data



Aogcm problems
AOGCM Problems

  • Time Scales

  • Grid Scales

  • Costs


Aogcm solutions
AOGCM Solutions

  • Asynchronous Coupling


Conclusion
Conclusion

There is a long way to go before we have RELIABLE

Models with which to predict CLIMATE

and CLIMATE CHANGE …


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