Biodiversity
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Biodiversity. Biodiversity. Variety of living things, number of kinds Ecological diversity different habitats, niches, species interactions Species diversity different kinds of organisms, relationships among species Genetic diversity

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Biodiversity

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Biodiversity


Biodiversity

  • Variety of living things, number of kinds

  • Ecological diversity

    • different habitats, niches, species interactions

  • Species diversity

    • different kinds of organisms, relationships among species

  • Genetic diversity

    • different genes & combinations of genes within populations


Benefits of Biodiversity

  • Ecosystem functions

  • Ecosystem services

    • Cleaning water,

    • Cleaning air,

    • Habitat & breeding areas for wildlife, …

  • Aesthetic and cultural benefits


Natural Resources

  • Vital economic natural resources

    • Renewable

      • Forests (plants, wildlife)

      • Soils

      • Fresh water (lakes, rivers)

      • Wildlife and fisheries

      • Rangeland

    • Nonrenewable

      • Minerals

      • Fossil Fuels


Natural Resources

  • Management of natural resources

    • Assure availability of resources for the future

    • Three “philosophies”

      • Maximum sustained yield

      • Ecosystem-based management

      • Adaptive management


Benefits of Biodiversity

  • New food sources

    • Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish


Benefits of Biodiversity

  • Medicines

    • Plants

    • Jellyfish & sea anemones

    • Nudibranchs

      • Marine slugs


Biodiversity

  • How much biodiversity

    • 1.7—2.0 million species

    • Estimates to 100 million


Biodiversity

  • Where is the biodiversity

    • Everywhere

      • Every continent and habitat has unique life forms

    • Concentrated in the tropics

      • Panama: > 500 species of breeding birds

      • Arctic: 50-100 species

        • Dense concentrations


Threats to Biodiversity

  • Extinction and population reductions

    • Hunting and overharvesting

      • Tiger

      • Dodo

      • Whales

      • Sharks

    • Habitat loss


Threats to Biodiversity

  • Extinction and population reductions

    • Pollution

    • Climate change

    • Invasive species


Protecting Biodiversity

  • How can we protect biodiversity

    • Stop overharvesting

      • Sustainable yield

      • Hunting & fishing laws (every state ?)

        • in developing nations ?

    • Protect habitat

      • Refuges, parks, preserves

    • Endangered Species Act


Protecting Biodiversity

  • Refuges, parks, reserves

    • How big should refuges be?

    • Where should they be?

    • McArthur & Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography”

      • colonization rate

      • extinction rate (local)

      • predicts number of species


Protecting Biodiversity

  • Endangered Species Act (1973)

    • Goal to “recover” species so they no longer need protection under ESA

    • Implements U.S. participation in CITES

      • “Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species”

      • Prohibits trade in listed species

        • whole organisms

        • parts: skins, bones, teeth, flowers, leaves, etc.

  • Other laws:

    • Marine Mammal Protection Act

    • Migratory Bird Treaty Act

    • Anadromous Fish Conservation Act

    • etc.


Protecting Biodiversity

  • Endangered Species Act (1973)

    • Listing of “endangered” and “threatened” species

    • Restricts development of habitats

    • Captive breeding programs

      • Release of captive bred stocks to enhance or recover wild populations.


Protecting Biodiversity

  • Biodiversity “hotspots”

    • Protection of habitat


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