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Biodiversity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Biodiversity. Biodiversity. Variety of living things, number of kinds Ecological diversity different habitats, niches, species interactions Species diversity different kinds of organisms, relationships among species Genetic diversity

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Presentation Transcript
biodiversity1
Biodiversity
  • Variety of living things, number of kinds
  • Ecological diversity
    • different habitats, niches, species interactions
  • Species diversity
    • different kinds of organisms, relationships among species
  • Genetic diversity
    • different genes & combinations of genes within populations
benefits of biodiversity
Benefits of Biodiversity
  • Ecosystem functions
  • Ecosystem services
    • Cleaning water,
    • Cleaning air,
    • Habitat & breeding areas for wildlife, …
  • Aesthetic and cultural benefits
natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Vital economic natural resources
    • Renewable
      • Forests (plants, wildlife)
      • Soils
      • Fresh water (lakes, rivers)
      • Wildlife and fisheries
      • Rangeland
    • Nonrenewable
      • Minerals
      • Fossil Fuels
natural resources1
Natural Resources
  • Management of natural resources
    • Assure availability of resources for the future
    • Three “philosophies”
      • Maximum sustained yield
      • Ecosystem-based management
      • Adaptive management
benefits of biodiversity1
Benefits of Biodiversity
  • New food sources
    • Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish
benefits of biodiversity2
Benefits of Biodiversity
  • Medicines
    • Plants
    • Jellyfish & sea anemones
    • Nudibranchs
      • Marine slugs
biodiversity2
Biodiversity
  • How much biodiversity
    • 1.7—2.0 million species
    • Estimates to 100 million
biodiversity3
Biodiversity
  • Where is the biodiversity
    • Everywhere
      • Every continent and habitat has unique life forms
    • Concentrated in the tropics
      • Panama: > 500 species of breeding birds
      • Arctic: 50-100 species
        • Dense concentrations
threats to biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
  • Extinction and population reductions
    • Hunting and overharvesting
      • Tiger
      • Dodo
      • Whales
      • Sharks
    • Habitat loss
threats to biodiversity1
Threats to Biodiversity
  • Extinction and population reductions
    • Pollution
    • Climate change
    • Invasive species
protecting biodiversity
Protecting Biodiversity
  • How can we protect biodiversity
    • Stop overharvesting
      • Sustainable yield
      • Hunting & fishing laws (every state ?)
        • in developing nations ?
    • Protect habitat
      • Refuges, parks, preserves
    • Endangered Species Act
protecting biodiversity1
Protecting Biodiversity
  • Refuges, parks, reserves
    • How big should refuges be?
    • Where should they be?
    • McArthur & Wilson “Theory of Island Biogeography”
      • colonization rate
      • extinction rate (local)
      • predicts number of species
protecting biodiversity2
Protecting Biodiversity
  • Endangered Species Act (1973)
    • Goal to “recover” species so they no longer need protection under ESA
    • Implements U.S. participation in CITES
      • “Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species”
      • Prohibits trade in listed species
        • whole organisms
        • parts: skins, bones, teeth, flowers, leaves, etc.
  • Other laws:
    • Marine Mammal Protection Act
    • Migratory Bird Treaty Act
    • Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
    • etc.
protecting biodiversity3
Protecting Biodiversity
  • Endangered Species Act (1973)
    • Listing of “endangered” and “threatened” species
    • Restricts development of habitats
    • Captive breeding programs
      • Release of captive bred stocks to enhance or recover wild populations.
protecting biodiversity4
Protecting Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity “hotspots”
    • Protection of habitat
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