A receding horizon genetic algorithm for dynamic multi target assignment and tracking
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A receding horizon genetic algorithm for dynamic multi-target assignment and tracking. A case study on the optimal positioning of tug vessels along the northern Norwegian coast. Robin T. Bye, Assoc. Prof. Dept. of Technology and Nautical Sciences Ålesund University College (ÅUC) Norway.

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A receding horizon genetic algorithm for dynamic multi target assignment and tracking

A receding horizon genetic algorithm for dynamic multi-target assignment and tracking

A case study on the optimal positioning of tug vessels along the northern Norwegian coast

Robin T. Bye, Assoc. Prof.

Dept. of Technology and Nautical Sciences

Ålesund University College (ÅUC)

Norway


Introduction
Introduction multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Multiple agents are to be (a) assigned and (b) track multiple moving targets in a dynamic environment

  • (a) Target assignment/resource allocation:

    • which agents shall track which targets?

  • (b) Collective tracking/positioning:

    • how should the agents move to increase net tracking performance or minimise cost?

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Introduction cont d
Introduction cont’d multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Tracking performance:

    • how to define a cost measure?

  • Dynamic environment:

    • how can agents respond to

      • targets changing their trajectories?

      • new targets appearing and/or targets disappearing?

      • variable external conditions?

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Case study positioning of tugs
Case study: Positioning of tugs multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA)

    • runs a Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) centre in Vardø

    • monitors ship traffic off northern Norwegian coast with the automatic identification system (AIS)

    • commands a fleet of patrolling tug vessels

  • Patrolling tug vessels (=agents)

    • must stop drifting oil tankers (=targets) or other ships and tow them to safety before grounding

    • are instructed by NCA to go to “good” positions that (hopefully) reduce the risk of drift grounding accidents

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Automatic identification system ais
Automatic identification system (AIS) multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Ships required to use AIS by law

  • Real-time VHF radio transmission to VTS centres

  • Static info: ID, destination, cargo, size, etc.

  • Dynamic info: Speed, position, heading, etc.

  • Enables prediction of future state of ships (e.g., position, speed, rate of turn)

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Dynamical risk models of nca
Dynamical risk models of NCA multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Risk-based decision support tools

  • Based on static information

    • type of ships, cargo, crew, nationality, etc.

    • geography, e.g., known dangerous waters

  • … and dynamic information

    • Ships’ position, direction, speed, etc.

    • weather conditions, e.g., wind, currents, waves, etc.

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Dynamical risk models of nca1
Dynamical risk models of NCA multi-target assignment and tracking

Courtesy NCA

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Dynamical risk models of nca2
Dynamical risk models of NCA multi-target assignment and tracking

Courtesy NCA

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Motivation
Motivation multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Today: Human operator makes decisions based on dynamical risk models

  • Limitation: Requires small number of tankers and tugs to be manageable by human operator

  • Oil/gas development in northern waters will increase traffic in years to come 

    How should a fleet of tugs move to reduce risk of accidents?

  • Algorithm needed for optimising tug positioning

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Oil tanker traffic
Oil tanker traffic multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Traffic: Along corridors

  • Tugs: Near shore

  • We can approximate corridors by parallel lines

Courtesy NCA

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Problem description
Problem description multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Lines of motion for 3 oil tankers (white) and 2 patrol tugs (black)

  • Predicted drift paths at future points in time

  • How should tugs move?

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Example scenario
Example scenario multi-target assignment and tracking

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Scenario explanation
Scenario explanation multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Crosspoint: Where drift trajectory of a tanker crosses patrol line of tugs

  • Typical drift time: 8-12 hours before crossing of patrol line  entering high-risk zone

  • White circles: Predicted crosspoints of drift trajectories of 6 oil tankers

  • Prediction horizon Th=24 hours ahead

  • Black circles: Suboptimal trajectories of 3 tugs  How to optimise tug trajectories?

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Method
Method multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Examine a finite number of potential patrol trajectories and evaluate a cost function for each

  • Use a genetic algorithm to find good solutions in reasonable time

  • Use receding horizon control to incorporate a dynamic environment and update trajectories

  • Plan trajectories 24 hours ahead but only execute first hour, then replan and repeat

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Genetic algorithm ga
Genetic algorithm (GA) multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Employs the usual GA scheme:

    • Define cost function, chromosome encoding and set GA parameters, e.g., mutation, selection

    • Generate an initial population of chromosomes

    • Evaluate a cost for each chromosome

    • Select mates based on a selection parameter

    • Perform mating

    • Perform mutation based on a mutation parameter

    • Repeat from Step 3 until desired cost level reached

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Some ga features
Some GA features multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Population size: Number of chromosomes

  • Selection: Fraction of chromosomes to keep for survival and reproduction

  • Mating: Combination of extrapolation and crossover, single crossover point

  • Mutation rate: Fraction of genes mutated at every iteration

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Cost function
Cost function multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Sum of distances between all crosspoints and nearest patrol points (positions of tugs)

    • only care about nearest tug that can save tanker

  • Define ytp as pth tug’s patrol point at time t

  • Define ytc as cth tanker’s cross point at time t

  • Consider No oil tankers and Np patrol tugs

Function of time t and chromosome Ci:

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Cost function cont d
Cost function cont’d multi-target assignment and tracking

cross point

cost

nearest patrol point

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Chromosome encoding
Chromosome encoding multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Contains possible set of Np control trajectories:

  • Each control trajectory u1p,…,uThpis a sequence of control inputs with values between -1 (max speed south) and +1 (max speed north)

  • Sequence of patrol points for tug p at time t from difference equation (ts is sample time):

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Receding horizon genetic algorithm rgha
Receding horizon genetic algorithm (RGHA) multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Scenario changes over time:

    • Winds, ocean currents, wave heights, etc.

    • Tanker positions, speeds, directions, etc.

  • Must reevaluate solution found by GA regularly  receding horizon control:

    • Calculate (sub)optimal set of trajectories with duration Th (24 hours, say) into the future

    • Execute only first part (1 hour, say) of trajectories

    • Repeat from Step 1 given new and predicted information

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation study
Simulation multi-target assignment and trackingstudy

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 0 hours
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=0 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 10 hours
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=10 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 25 hours
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=25 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Results
Results multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Mean cost

    • Static strategy: 2361

    • RHGA: 808

    • Performance improvement: 65.8%

  • Standard deviation

    • Static strategy: 985

    • RHGA: 292

    • Improvement: 70.4%

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Conclusions
Conclusions multi-target assignment and tracking

  • The RHGA is able to simultaneously perform multi-target allocation and tracking in a dynamic environment

  • The choice of cost function gives good tracking with target allocation “for free” (need no logic)

  • The RHGA provides good prevention against possible drift accidents by accounting for the predicted future environment

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Future directions
Future directions multi-target assignment and tracking

  • Comparison with other algorithms

  • Extend/change cost function

    • punish movement/velocity changes (save fuel)

    • vary risk factor (weight) of tankers

    • use a set of various max speeds for tankers/tugs

  • Incorporate boundary conditions

  • Add noise and nonlinearities

  • Extend to 2D and 3D

  • Test with other/faster systems

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Questions
Questions? multi-target assignment and tracking

ÅUC campus

Robin T. Bye, [email protected]

Virtual Møre project, www.virtualmore.org

Ålesund University College, www.hials.no

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Results1
Results multi-target assignment and tracking

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 0 hours1
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=0 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 5 hours
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=5 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 10 hours1
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=10 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 15 hours
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=15 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 20 hours
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=20 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


Simulation example t d 25 hours1
Simulation example, multi-target assignment and trackingtd=25 hours

Robin T. Bye, Ålesund University College


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