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3-8-10. “The United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members” ~Harry S. Truman. Chapter 17.1: Two Superpowers Face Off. Former Allies Diverge. 1. Why was the United States upset with Stalin in 1939?

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“The United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members”

~Harry S. Truman

Chapter 17 1 two superpowers face off

Chapter 17.1: Two Superpowers Face Off

Former allies diverge

Former Allies Diverge

  • 1. Why was the United States upset with Stalin in 1939?

  • He had signed the non-aggression pact with Hitler.

  • 2. What did Stalin accuse the allies of doing during the war?

  • Delaying their invasion of German-occupied Europe.

A joint postwar plan

A Joint Postwar Plan

  • 3. Who were the allied leaders that met at the Yalta Conference in February 1945?

  • Winston Churchill from England, F.D. Roosevelt from the USA, and Josef Stalin from the USSR.

  • 4. What was the agreement of the Yalta Conference?

  • Divide Germany into zones of occupation, Germany would compensate the S.U. for losses, Eastern Europeans would have free elections, Stalin would join the war against Japan.

Creation of the united nations

Creation of the United Nations

  • 5. How many nations joined the United Nations?

  • 50

  • 6. What did the United Nations pledge?

  • “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.”

  • 7. Who were the original five permanent members of the Security Council?

  • Britain, China, France, the US, and the SU

Differing u s and soviet goals

Differing U.S. and Soviet Goals

  • 8. How was the US different than the Soviet Union at the end of WWII? Give three examples

  • The US was the richest and most powerful country in the world, suffered 400,000 deaths during the war. The Soviets had 50 times as many deaths, 1 in 4 Soviets was wounded or killed. Many Soviet cities were destroyed.

The soviet union corrals eastern europe

The Soviet Union Corrals Eastern Europe

  • 9. What was the major goal of the Soviet Union at the end of WWII and why?

  • Shield itself from another invasion from the West. Throughout its history Russia had been attacked from nations to the west.

Soviets build a wall of satellite nations

Soviets Build a Wall of Satellite Nations

  • 10. What did the Soviet Union build its protective wall out of?

  • The nations to the west

  • 11. What did Truman press Stalin to do at the Potsdam Conference?

  • Permit free elections in Eastern Europe.

  • 12. What did Stalin declare in a 1946 speech?

  • Communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world. And the war between the US and SU was certain.

  • 13. What is the significance of the previous statement?

  • Stalin believed that two political systems could not work in harmony, One country or the other would have to back down.

The iron curtain divides east and west

The Iron Curtain Divides East and West

  • 14. How was Germany divided after WWII?

  • The Soviets controlled the eastern part including half of the capital, Berlin. The Western zones became the Federal Republic of Germany.

  • 15. What is the significance of Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech?

  • It shows the division between the mostly democratic Western Europe and a Communist Eastern Europe

United states counters soviet expansion

United States Counters Soviet Expansion

  • 16. Describe Truman’s policy of containment:

  • Containment is the policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and preventing the expansion of communism. Including creating alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances.

The truman doctrine

The Truman Doctrine

  • 17. How does Truman contrast democracy and communism in his speech to congress, use his words?

  • Democracy is free. Free institutions and free elections. Communism is terror and oppression. The suppression of personal freedoms.

  • 18. Give three reasons why some countries object to the Truman Doctrine?

  • Objected to US interference in other nations affairs, lacked resources to carry on a global crusade against communism, US support would go to dictators.

The marshall plan

The Marshall Plan

  • 19. What was the main point of the Marshall Plan?

  • To give aid to Europe by providing food, machines and other materials.

  • 20. Where did the Marshall plan have spectacular success?

  • Western Europe and Yugoslavia

Marshall plan chart

Marshall Plan Chart

  • 21. Which country received the most aid from the US?

  • Great Britain, over 2 billion dollars

  • 22. Why do you think Great Britain and France received so much aid?

  • They were the principle allies of the US during WWII

The berlin airlift

The Berlin Airlift

  • 23. What did France, Britain, and the United States decide to do in Germany in 1948?

  • Withdraw troops from Germany and allow the three occupation zones to form one nation

  • 24. What had the Soviet Union done to Western Berlin in 1948?

  • Cut off highway, water, and rail traffic.

  • 25. How did America and Britain respond to the Soviets action?

  • Flew in food and supplies to help the west Berliners.

  • 26. What was this event called and how many supplies were brought in?

  • The Berlin airlift, over 11 months over 2.3 million tons of supplies were brought in.

The cold war and a divided world

The Cold War and a Divided World

  • 27. How did the two Superpowers deal with each other beginning in 1949?

  • They used spying, propaganda, diplomacy, and secret operations in their dealings with one another. Affected the entire world.

Rival alliances

Rival Alliances

  • 28. What is the name of the Western European, US and Canada defensive military alliance?

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

  • 29. What did this signify for the US?

  • It was the U.S.’s first peacetime military commitment.

  • 30. How did the Soviets respond to the Western alliance?

  • Developed their own alliance system known as the Warsaw Pact

  • 31. Why was SEATO formed?

  • To stabilize Southeast Asia after open military aggression in Korea and Indochina.

Nuclear threat

Nuclear Threat

  • 32. What made the struggle between the US and SU more dangerous than previous world conflicts?

  • They both had Nuclear weapons

  • 33. What did Truman authorize work on in January 1950?

  • A thermonuclear weapon

  • 34. How is the H-bomb different from the A-bomb?

  • Its thousands of times more powerful, coming from the fusion of atoms rather than splitting atoms.

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  • 35. How did Eisenhower’s presidency push the conflict even further?

  • If the Soviet Union attacked US interests the US would retaliate instantly

  • 36. What did Brinkmanship require?

  • A reliable source of nuclear weapons and airplanes to deliver them.

  • 37. How long did the arms race last?

  • four decades.

The cold war in the skies

The Cold War in the Skies

  • 38. What is an ICBM?

  • Intercontinental ballistic missile capable of traveling great distances.

  • 39. What is the name of the first Soviet satellite?

  • Sputnik

  • 40. What did this signify?

  • Americans had fallen behind in the space race

  • 41. What is the “Open Skies” policy?

  • US and SU could fly freely over each other’s territory to guard against surprise nuclear attacks

  • 42. What did the U-2 incident bring to the cold war?

  • Mistrust and tension to a new height.

The space race

The Space Race

  • 43. Which destinations in space did both the US and the SU explore?

  • Both countries have sent missions to explore the moon, Venus, and Mars.

  • 44. What role might space continue to play in achieving world peace?

  • 45. What are the two events in which the US and SU worked together in Space?

  • 1975- launch first joint space mission, 1995- US shuttle Discovery links up with Soviet Space station MIR.

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