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The Great War (1914-1918). The War to End All Wars? . Essential Questions . What were the causes of World War I? What events set the war in motion? How did the war progress on the Western and Eastern fronts? How was World War I a truly global conflict?

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The Great War (1914-1918)

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The Great War (1914-1918)

The War to End All Wars?


Essential Questions

  • What were the causes of World War I?

  • What events set the war in motion?

  • How did the war progress on the Western and Eastern fronts?

  • How was World War I a truly global conflict?

  • How did technology change the face of warfare?

  • What were the main points of the Treaty of Versailles?

  • What were the effects of World War I on western society?


The cost

  • Forces mobilized: 65,038,810

  • Killed: 8,528,831

  • Wounded: 21,189,154

  • MIA: 7,750,919

  • Total casualties: 37,466,904

  • Casualties as % of Forces: 57.5

  • Financial cost: $338 billion


MAIN Causes

  • M = Militarism

  • Need to maintain strong militaries to protect national interests

  • Arms race, military spending increases

  • Fight for naval supremacy between Britain and Germany


MAIN

  • A = Alliances

  • Supposed to maintain the status quo/keep the stalemate

  • Backfired: Domino effect

    Triple Entente (1907): Britain, France, Russia

    Triple Alliance (1882): Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (later switched sides)


Europe at the start of the Great War


Journal #8

  • Should you always support a friend?

  • What might be the long-term consequences of refusing to support an ally?


The spark that sets off the Balkan Powderkeg

  • What would cause war?

    • “Some damn foolish thing in the Balkans…”

      • Bismarck

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hE8552joxfE&feature=related

  • Who were the Black Hand and what was their goal?

  • How did the assassination lead to world war?


  • Timeline of the Domino Effect

    • June 28: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalists (Black Hand)

    • July 28: Austria first issues Serbia an ultimatum, then declares war (had a “blank check” from Germany)

    • July 31: Russia mobilizes for Serbia

    • Aug. 1: Germany declares war on Russia

    • Aug. 3: Germany declares war on France

    • Aug. 4: Germany declares war on neutral Belgium (Schlieffen Plan); Britain declares war on Germany

    • Aug. 6: Austria declares war on Russia


    Who is to blame?


    Be a detective: The Willy-Nicky Telegrams

    • Questions:

      • 1. How does the tone of the telegrams change from the first to the last?

      • 2. Who does the tsar (Russia) blame for causing war?

      • 3. Who does the kaiser (Germany) blame for causing war?

      • 4. Why does Kaiser Wilhelm say that he has to mobilize his army?

    • Write one paragraph: Did Germany try to prevent war, or did Kaiser Wilhelm II want to escalate the assassination into a European conflict? Use evidence from the telegrams and lecture notes.


    Journal #9

    • Look on pg. 412 in your textbook and start labeling your map with the European countries. Then label the Eastern and Western Fronts.


    Beginning of the war

    • Central Powers:

      • Germany

      • Austria-Hungary

      • Ottoman Empire/Bulgaria

    • Allied Powers:

      • Great Britain

      • France

      • Russia

      • Italy (and later, US)


    Schlieffen Plan

    • Germany: Schlieffen Plan

      • Goal: knock out France (to avoid a two-front war) by taking Paris in exactly 42 days!

      • Kaiser: “Paris for lunch, St. Petersburg for dinner!”

      • Pass through neutral Belgium (“rape of Belgium”)

      • BUT Battle of Tannenberg diverted troops to Prussia; Russia mobilized faster than expected (10 days)

      • http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/maps/maps_outbreak.html


    Journal #10

    • Why do you think World War One was called the “Great War”?


    Important Terms to Know:

    • First Battle of the Marne (1914): Schlieffen Plan fails and the long stalemate of trench warfare begins

    • Western Front: By 1915, 500 miles of trenches from the North Sea to the Swiss border

    • Battle of the Somme (1916): 20,000 British soldiers killed in one day of battle alone (60,000 casualties total)

    • Eastern Front: The German and Russian border


    Watching “All Quiet on the Western Front”

    • Question:

      • What weaponry/technology do you notice?


    New Weaponry

    • Machine gun

    • Tank

      • British debut at the Battle of the Somme (1916)

    • Poison Gas

      • Destroyed respiratory organs, caused blisters, and even death


    U Boats

    • Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare: Sinking without warning ships in enemy waters

    • 1915: British ship Lusitania torpedoed

      • Killed 1198 people, including 128 Americans


    Why did the US join the war in 1917?

    • Lusitania

    • Zimmerman Telegram

    • Woodrow Wilson:

      • To make the world “safe for democracy”

      • $ and arms sent to the Allies

      • Cultural and historical ties to Britain

      • Anti-German feeling


    A global war

    • Turn to pg. 418. What areas of the world got involved in the war?

    • Middle East

      • Gallipolli Campaign (Dardenelles)


    Journal #11

    • What are two reasons the US joined the war?

    • What do you know about propaganda?


    Home Front

    • Total War: Civilians helping the war effort

      • Women in factories

      • Rationing

      • Press censorship

    • Propaganda: Persuasive one-sided information to keep up morale

      • Techniques:

        • Name-calling/demonization of the enemy

        • Bandwagon: Join, everyone else is!

        • Fear

        • Appeal to authority

        • Glorifying your country


    Journal #12

    • “It must be a peace without victory…only a peace among equals can last.”

      • ---President Woodrow Wilson

  • What does this quote mean?

    • What is “a peace without victory”?

    • Predict: Do you think that the treaty that ends World War I is “a peace among equals”?


  • End of the war in 1918

    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918): Russia surrenders

      • Starvation, riots

      • Russian Revolution overthrows the czar

  • Armistice (end of the war): November 11, 1918

    • America enters the war; Spring Offensive fails

    • Allies crumble (Austria-Hungary, Ottomans)

    • German starvation, mutiny

    • Government collapses, kaiser abdicates (steps down)

      • “Stab in the back” legend


  • Peace

    • World War I destroyed the German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires

    • Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points:

      • No secret treaties

      • Freedom of the seas

      • Self determination (nations choose independence)

      • League of Nations (pre-United Nations)


    Treaty of Versailles Simulation

    • Year long peace talks at the Paris Peace Conference

    • Big 4:

      • Woodrow Wilson (US president)

      • Georges Clemenceau (France)

      • David Lloyd George (Britain)

      • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

    • Which countries had no say?


    Results of the Treaty of Versailles

    • “We shall have to fight another war again in 25 years time.”

      • --David Lloyd George, British PM

    • Was he right?


    Journal #13

    • How did the Treaty of Versailles set the stage for World War II?


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