Search for binary black holes in galactic nuclei
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Search for Binary Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei. Hiroshi SUDOU (Gifu Univ., Japan) [email protected] Outline. Introduction to Binary (supermassive) Black Hole (BBH) Possible evidence for BBHs Ideas for KVN/EAVN observations Prospects for VSOP-2. Evolution. Basic scenario:

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Search for Binary Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

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Search for binary black holes in galactic nuclei

Search for Binary Black Holesin Galactic Nuclei

Hiroshi SUDOU

(Gifu Univ., Japan)

[email protected]

EAVN Workshop, Seoul, 2009 March 19


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction to Binary (supermassive) Black Hole (BBH)

  • Possible evidence for BBHs

  • Ideas for KVN/EAVN observations

  • Prospects for VSOP-2


Evolution

Evolution

Basic scenario:

1) a galaxy have a SMBH

2) galaxy merging often occurs

3) merged galaxy should have

two SMBH in its center

4) two BH forms BBH system

5) they finally merge into one

with gravitation wave burst

Dynamical

Friction

Gravitational

Wave

Begelman et al. 1980


Good target for vlbi

Good Target for VLBI

  • Lifetime of BBH can be the longest between DF phase and GW phase

  • The most observable examples of BBHs will have

    Separation ~ 0.01 - 1 pc

    (20 - 2000 micro-as @ 100Mpc)

    Orbital period ~ 1 – 100 yr


Schematic view of bbh

NLR

Schematic View of BBH

Jet

10-100pc

Torus

BLR

0.1pc

BH

Accretion Disk

0.1pc

10pc

Detection of orbital motion of BH

is direct evidence for BBH !


Possible evidence 1 periodic flux variations

Possible Evidence (1)Periodic Flux Variations

OJ287 (Sillanpaa et al. 1998)


Possible evidence 2 jet shape

Possible Evidence(2)Jet shape

Twin jet (3C75)

Precession jet (1928+738)

Owen et al. 1985

Yokosawa and Inoue 1985

Roos et al. 1993


Possible evidence 3 double agn core

Possible Evidence (3)Double AGN core

Chandra

VLBA

r ~ 10 pc

r ~ 1 kpc

Komossa et al. 2003

Mines et al. 2004


Detecting bbh with vlbi

Detecting BBH with VLBI

Combination of these methods is very important


Periodic flare due to bbh

Periodic flare due to BBH

  • How to find characteristic variation due to BBH ? What is variation mechanism ?

  • Theoretical study / simulations

Hayasaki et al. 2006

Multi-frequency observations are important


Flux monitoring with kvn

Flux monitoring with KVN

  • Searching for periodic variation with period of < a few yr

  • KVN is suitable for this project

    • sensitive mm-wave (less jet contamination)

    • multi-frequency (22-120 GHz)

  • Combination with other wavelength

    • Note: X-ray all-sky monitoring facility MAXI will be on board ISS in 2009

Based on monitoring results,

we can go to further BBH search


Problems of this idea

Problems of this idea

  • Clarify importance of multi radio-frequency

    • What is flaring mechanism at mm-wavelength ?

    • More theoretical study must be needed

  • Source selection criteria (merging or merged galaxy ? Sensitivity limited ?)

  • Probability to detect orbiting BHs

    • GW emitting phase would be very short (< 104 yr) compared with AGN timescale (108 yr ?)

       More detailed discussion needed


Bbh is important target for vsop 2

BBH is important target for VSOP-2

Longest baseline:

25,000 km

Frequency:

8, 22, and 43 GHz

Spatial resolution:

40 micro-arcsec @ 43G

Launch:

FY2012

High spatial resolution is essential,

40 micro-as  0.02 pc @ 100Mpc

for detecting harder BBHs emitting gravitation wave!


Summary

Summary

  • BBHs with r~0.1pc, P~10 yr would be most observable examples

  • Proposing idea of flux monitoring with KVN, but needed more discussion

  • Based on monitoring results, VSOP-2 could confirm the presence of BBH emitting gravitation wave

Hoping to much friendly collaborate

with East-Asia people !


Possible evidence x core motion

Possible evidence (x) Core motion

  • @8GHz

Radio Galaxy 3C66B

1

2

4

6

5

3

8 GHz

50 micoro-as

α

δ

Further observations are needed !


Search for binary black holes in galactic nuclei

MAXI

  • Monitor of all-sky X-ray image

  • 0.5 – 30 keV

  • Position accuracy ~ 6 arcmin

  • Every 90 min (1 orbit), all-sky image will be obtained

  • 1000 X-ray source is expected to be detected, including AGN, X-ray binary, etc


Orbital period

Orbital period

The most observable examples of BBHs will have

P ~ 1 - 100 yr


Comparison between binary pulsar and bbh

Comparison between Binary Pulsar and BBH


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