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The Cultural Geography of Gender (Women in particular). Cultural Influences on Gender Roles. Cultural norms can control the advancement or subjugation of women and their status in certain regions of the world.

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The Cultural Geography of Gender (Women in particular)

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The cultural geography of gender women in particular

The Cultural Geography of Gender (Women in particular)


Cultural influences on gender roles

Cultural Influences on Gender Roles

  • Cultural norms can control the advancement or subjugation of women and their status in certain regions of the world.

  • Culture and society has an enormous impact on gender roles in America. Americans receive thousands of cultural messages each week concerning gender roles, including advertisements, movies, TV, music, magazines and family influence. People evaluate these messages to understand expectations for their gender and how they should operate within society. While many people and organizations challenge these traditional gender roles, the influence of mainstream culture remains evident.


The traditional role of the woman

The Traditional Role of the Woman


Gender and development

Gender and Development

  • The development of a culture/society is closely tied to how they view women. In developed countries, the role of the woman in society has changed. We use several measurements concerning gender in determining how developed a culture/society/country actually is. It all goes back to how they treat women.


Development by gender how is it measured

Development by gender: How is it measured?

  • Gender-Related Development Index

    2. Gender Empowerment Measure

    3. Child Marriage (CM)

    Who creates these indexes?

    UNHD


Gender related development index

Gender-Related Development Index

Economic:

average income

2. Social Indicators:

-literacy levels

-education

(school attendance)

3. Demographic:

Life expectancy


Gender related development index1

Gender-Related Development Index


The cultural geography of gender women in particular

  • -The rank of the Netherlands remained the same. (0)

  • -The rank of Belgium is #7 but the HDI rank is #6. (-1)

  • -The rank of Iceland is #6 but the HDI rank is #7. (1)

  • -The rank of Japan is #12 but the HDI rank is 9. (-3)

  • Why would a country drop in rank from the HDI?


Nepal gdi

Nepal: GDI

  • 59.4 59.9 26.4 61.6 55 67 891 1,776 -4

    What can you tell about women in Nepal?

    -Women and men have the

    same life expectancy. Why?

    -Only a small % of women can

    read compared to their

    enrollment in school. Why?

    -Women make less money

    than men. Why?

    -What does the last figure mean?


China gdi

China: GDI

94 73.2 68.8 86.5 95.1 64 69 3,571 5,435 5

What can you tell about

the women in China?

-Life expectancy is more

consistent with the global trend

-Almost equal numbers of each

sex attend school, although low

-Literacy rate is high but lower

for females compared to males

-Males have a higher income

compared to women, consistent

with the global pattern


Gender empowerment measure how is it measured

Gender Empowerment MeasureHow is it measured?

  • The GEM demonstrates the ability of women to participate and determine the power structure of a country

    2 Economic indicators:

    -% of women in professional and technical jobs

    -income level

    2 Political indicators:

    -% of women in admin or managerial jobs

    -% of women holding elected positions


Gender empowerment measure

Gender Empowerment Measure


Nepal gem

Nepal: GEM

  • No data.50

    1951 1951 1952A 14.8 6 5.9

    Due to lack of data on the GEM,

    Data was found on the Political

    Participation Index


China gem

China: GEM

20.2 .66

  • 1949 1954E 5.1 21 20.2

    Data for China can be combined from the GEM and the Political Participation index to discuss the political power of women compared to men in China.


Gdi and gem of an mdc sweden

GDI and GEM of an MDC:Sweden

2 0.946 82.5 77.5 100 100 124 104 23,781 28,700 -

2 0.854 45.3 31 50 0.83

When comparing Nepal and China to Sweden, what differences can you detect?


Child marriage

Child Marriage


The cultural geography of gender women in particular

Prevalence of Child Marriage – Top 20 Countries


Child marriage cm constraints to health development

Child Marriage (CM): Constraints to Health & Development

  • Worse reproductive health outcomes

  • Wasted investment in development efforts


The cultural geography of gender women in particular

Maternal Mortality by Age


The cultural geography of gender women in particular

Infant Mortality Rates by Age of the Mother


Poor health outcomes

Poor Health Outcomes

Outcomes of Child Marriage

  • Maternal mortality

  • Maternal morbidities

  • Low birth weight & prematurity

  • Infant mortality

  • Dowry Deaths-refers the deaths of young women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry. Dowry death is considered one of the many categories of violence against women, alongside rape, bride burning and acid throwing. It is widespread in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and some regions of Africa. Pakistan has the highest reported rates of dowry-related deaths per 100,000 women in the world. In India, alone, there were 8,233 dowry deaths in 2012.

    Reasons for Outcomes

  • Still growing

  • First birth

  • Inadequate prenatal care

  • Low socioeconomic status


The cultural geography of gender women in particular

Child Marriage and Rank on

Human Development Index (HDI)


Reasons why does child marriage persist

Reasons: Why Does Child Marriage Persist?

  • Gender roles

    • Families see girls as financial and social burdens

    • Lack of socially acceptable alternatives for girls

  • Family and community honor tied to early marriage

    • Reinforce ties between families and communities

    • Desire to protect girls

  • Lack of political will

  • Cultural norm


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • -Just like the HDI, the GDI and GEM divide countries into high, medium, and low areas of development.

  • --Gender inequality in income, education, and political power is a global problem.


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