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Insta-Plug ™ New low-pressure Feedwater heater and condenser tube plug Not to leak or fall out for the life of the exchanger. American Power Systems Dan Bina Hollaender Enterprises, Inc. Roger Adelman. Plugging tubes: A problem with many solutions. Metallurgical Plugs

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Presentation Transcript
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Insta-Plug™New low-pressure Feedwater heater and condenser tube plug Not to leak or fall out for the life of the exchanger

American Power Systems

Dan Bina

Hollaender Enterprises, Inc.

Roger Adelman

plugging tubes a problem with many solutions
Plugging tubes: A problem with many solutions
  • Metallurgical Plugs

Metallurgical bonding mechanisms:

        • Welded, brazed, soldered
        • Explosive (kinetic)
  • Mechanical Plugs

Friction/interference mechanisms:

        • Tapered cylinders
        • Tapered cylinder in mating sleeve
        • Taper around a cylinder (Screws/Compressors)
mechanical plugs
Mechanical Plugs
  • Primary Advantages:
      • Quick to install
      • Simple to install
      • Relatively low cost
      • Effective for lower pressures
  • Primary Disadvantages:
      • Failure, particularly with cycling
why plugs fail 1 forces on a stuck mechanical plug
Why Plugs Fail (1)Forces on a stuck mechanical plug

N1

Ff1 = μN1

Alternative

Blowout

Blowout

N2

Ff = μN2

why plugs fail 2 friction and normal force competition
Why Plugs Fail (2)Friction and normal force competition

N1

Ff1 = μN1

Alternative

Blowout

Blowout

N2

Ff = μN2

why plugs fail 3 friction and normal force competition
Why Plugs Fail (3)Friction and normal force competition

N1

N1

Ff1 = μN1

Ff1 = μN1

θ

θ

1. As installed

2. Possible In use

why plugs fail 4 friction loses the competition
Why Plugs Fail (4)Friction loses the competition

Ny

N

Ff = μN

Ffy

Nx

Ffx

θ

Nx >Ffx , even the slightest amount and plug slips

why plugs fail 4 how can that happen
Why Plugs Fail (4)How can that happen?
  • Differential behavior of tube and plug
  • Changes in coefficient of friction
  • Mechanical dynamics
  • Infiltration of intermediate material
  • Other (micro cracking, etc.)

IT IS A FAIL “UNSAFE” CONDITION:

Once it begins it tends to continue to loosen

instaplug a non wedge based plug
InstaPlug™A non-wedge based plug

unique one-piece shape + a material with very special properties

nitinol or memory metal
NiTiNol or “Memory Metal”
  • Nickel/Titanium alloy
  • Exists in two allotropic forms (atomic structures)
    • Martensite (at lower temperatures)
    • Austenite (at higher temperatures)
  • Special processing gives two important properties
    • Ability to “remember” a first shape after being in second
    • Superelasticity – almost six times “normal” metals
  • Inert enough to be widely used in medical implants
  • Retains large elastic energy when press-fit
simple positive process 1 create the plug and shrink it
Simple positive process (1) Create the plug and shrink it

Heat treatment

As machined d+~0.004” Reduced diameter for installation

simple positive process 2 install into well prepared tube tubesheet
Simple positive process (2) Install into well prepared tube/tubesheet
  • Place in clean tube end
  • Heat to restore “memorized” interference fit
engineering and design
Engineering and Design
  • NOT the simple analysis used for exposition here
  • Sophisticated Finite Element Analysis for
    • Deflection
    • Force
    • Stress/strain distribution
    • Thermal analysis
conclusion
Conclusion
  • We believe that we now have cost effective, and reliable means in the Insta-Plug™ that will:
    • not fail in service regardless of the cycling conditions
    • provide for installation that is fast, safe and simple
    • be cost competitive with other mechanical plugs
    • account for real world service demands e.g. thermal cycling
  • We intend that Insta-Plug™, like our experience with explosive welded plugs for high pressure feedwater heaters, will “last the lifetime” of the heat exchanger.
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