ATTRIBUTIONS & VALUES ATTRIBUTION THEORY: TYPES OF ATTRIBUTIONS FUNCTIONS FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR Cultural and motivational factors ACTOR-OBSERVER BIAS ROOTS OF THESE BIASES INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON ATTRIBUTIONAL PROCESSES: LOCUS OF CONTROL RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM
ATTRIBUTION:- finding, giving, explaining the cause of events - very important type of cognition- influenced by beliefs about the social world (e.g., power of context vs. internal factors)
control, blame, fate, freedom
…… Are we at the mercy of external forces or are the results of our actions under our own control?
How much do you tend to agree/disagree with these statements?
There's no sense planning a lot - if something good is going to happen, it will.
The really good things that happen to me are mostly luck.
I am responsible for my own success.
I can do just about anything I really set my mind to.
Most of my problems are due to bad breaks.
I have little control over the bad things that happen to me.
My misfortunes are the result of mistakes I have made.
I am responsible for my failures.
“ We take the stand that there are always some alternative constructions available to choose among in dealing with the world. No one needs to paint himself into a corner; no one needs to be completely hemmed in by circumstances; no one needs to be the victim of his biography. We call this philosophical position constructive alternativism.”George Kelly (1955). "A Theory of personality."
“Further, when you are powerless, you don’t just speak differently. A lot of you don’t speak. Your speech is not just differently articulated, it is silenced. Eliminated, gone. You aren’t just deprived of a language with which to articulate your distinctiveness, although you are; you are deprived of a life out of which articulation might come.” Catherine MacKinnon (1987). “Difference and Dominance”
BASIC FACTS ABOUT ATTRIBUTIONS
Tendency for people (in Western cultures) to underestimate situational influences & overestimate person influences on others’ behavior.
Question for the class:
What factors (philosophy, religion, politics, economy) could be behind these cultural differences between US/Northern Europe and the rest of the world?
FAE & CULTURELee, Hallahan, Herzog (1996)
Tendency to attribute one’s own behavior to situational causes & others’ behavior to person causes.
People are Cognitive Misers
People Seek a Coherent Understanding of the World
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON ATTRIBUTION
Illustrative Items from Rotter’s
Internal-External Locus of Control Scale
ORIGINS AND DYNAMICS OF LOCUS OF CONTROL?
1 Beliefs affect behavior and environment
2 Behavior influences environment and beliefs
3 Environment influences behavior and beliefs
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ACHIEVEMENT OUTCOMES ACCORDING TO LOCUS, STABILITY AND CONTROLLABILITY(Weiner, 1979)
Note: Only study this part of the table
VALUES (Schwartz, 1992)
Openness to change