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SI4000 SUMMER 2004 UAV Brief. UAV Development and History at Northrop Grumman Corporation Ryan Aeronautical Center. Norman S. Sakamoto [email protected] 619.203.5726. File Name. 1 As of (date). UAV Family Tree.

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Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

SI4000 SUMMER 2004

UAV Brief

UAV Development and History at Northrop Grumman Corporation

Ryan Aeronautical Center

Norman S. Sakamoto

[email protected]

619.203.5726

File Name.1

As of (date)


Uav family tree

UAV Family Tree

Historically, no single, universally accepted definition has adequately categorize the Unmanned Air Vehicle.

Vehicle

Ballistic

Powered

Guided

Unguided

Unguided

Guided

Smart

Bomb

Bullet

Shell

Free Fall

Bomb

ICBM

Simple Rocket

Unmanned

Manned

Recoverable

Recoverable

Expendable

Expendable

Conventional Aircraft

Kamikaze

Remote Control

Automatic Control

Remote Control

Automatic Control

Current Definition of a UAV

Guided Missile

Cruise Missile

RPV

Drone


Unmanned air vehicle origins

Unmanned Air Vehicle Origins

Necessity, the “mother of invention” produced flying bomb concepts during the First World War. The armistice halted experiments on all but targets.

  • 1917:French artillery officer, Rene`Lorin proposed flying bombs using gyroscopic and barometric stabilization and control.

  • 1918:Germany halts development of guided weapons.

  • 1918:Charles Kettering (USA) flies Liberty Eagle “Kettering Bug” and Army Air Corps orders 75 copies.

  • 1920:Elmer Sperry perfects the gyroscope and the first enabling technology makes flight control feasible

  • 1932:RAE “Fairey Queen” crashes, technology is still in its infancy.

Fairey Queen IIIF Mark IIIB, 1932


Usa targets become successful

USA - Targets Become Successful

1935 - Reginald Denny develops the RP-1 and launches the Radio Plane Company, later to become the Northrop Ventura Division.


V 1 debuts in 1943

V-1 Debuts in 1943

Advanced technologies of the Forties provided control, guidance and targeting.

Azimuth Control by gyroscope governed by magnetic compass

Speed was determined by engine performance at max. power

Aneroid barometer altitude control

Propeller driven “air-log” governed range


Launch systems

Launch Systems

A wide variety of launch systems have been developed for UAV applications

Pneumatic Catapult

Air Launch

JATO/RATO Launch

Runway Launch


Uav recovery techniques

UAV Recovery Techniques

Recovery schemes are determined by application and UAV size, the trend is toward autoland capability

Parachute

ABIAS

Mid Air Retrieval System (MARS)

Conventional

Net


Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

SI4000 SUMMER 2004

UAV Brief

Ryan Aeronautical

UAV History

Norman S. Sakamoto

[email protected]

619.203.5726

File Name.8

As of (date)


Ryan xaam a 1 firebird

Ryan XAAM-A-1 Firebird

Firebird ushers in the missile age at Ryan in 1949

Speed was determined by engine performance at max. power

7.5’ without booster

Aneroid barometer altitude control

Early radar guidance was a forerunner to Sparrow missiles


Bqm 34 firebee subsonic aerial target

BQM-34 Firebee Subsonic Aerial Target

High Performance, Jet-powered UAV designed to simulate hostile aircraft or missile threats

  • Primary Missions

    • Air defense weapons development, test & evaluation

    • Air defense weapons training

  • Secondary Missions

    • Aerial reconnaissance

    • Experimental aerial platform

  • System Capabilities

    • Ground launch

    • Air launch from C-130

    • Recovery by parachute on land or at sea

    • 8-12 flights per vehicle

  • Flight Control and Navigation

    • Remotely piloted from airborne or ground control station

    • Preprogrammable Microprocessor Flight Control System ( MFCS) for autonomous flight

BQ-34 Firebee evolved from the Ryan KD-A


Bqm 34e firebee ii supersonic aerial target

BQM-34E Firebee II Supersonic Aerial Target

Turbojet Powered UAV designed to simulate high speed hostile aircraft and anti-ship missiles

  • Primary Missions

    • Air defense training

    • Aerial combat training

    • Weapons systems development

  • Secondary Missions

    • Test vehicle for advanced aerodynamic technology research (NASA)

  • System Capabilities

    • Ground Launch

    • Air launch from C-130

    • Recovery by parachute on land or at sea

    • 8-12 flights per vehicle

Firebee II with external fuel tank in subsonic flight


Aqm 91a compass arrow

AQM-91A Compass Arrow

Twenty plus vehicles built in the late ‘60’s, still holds the unmanned turbine powered altitude record, 80,000 ft.

  • Incorporated several low observable features.

  • Significant reduction in the RCS features of the aircraft as seen from the ground.

  • Vertical tails and fuselage sides canted toward centerline to eliminate the specular reflections from the side aspect at or below the horizontal plane.

  • The engine inlet, located on top of the fuselage was lined with RAM, to conceal it from angles below the horizontal plane.

  • Exhaust nozzle was cooled to reduce IR signature, and like the inlet, was placed so as to be hidden by other airframe features at many aspects of observation. RAM was applied to the leading edges of the wing and to some portions of the fuselage.

  • First large UAV specifically designed to survive by stealth.

  • Compass Arrow operated at altitudes in excess of 80,000 ft. while traveling at subsonic speeds.


Aqm 81a n firebolt

AQM-81A/N Firebolt

Rocket-powered target missile designed to replicate high altitude and high speed threats.

  • Primary Mission

    • Provide a realistic threat simulation of advanced enemy threats that fly in the upper reaches of earth’s airspace for…

      • Air defense training

      • Aerial combat training

      • Weapons systems development

  • Reusable Hybrid Rocket Powered Target Missile

    • Air Launch

    • Recovery by MARS over land or sea

    • 20 Flights per vehicle

  • Flight Control and Navigation

    • Pre-programmable Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)

    • Remotely piloted from Ground Control Station


Yqm 98a compass cope

YQM-98A Compass Cope

Two units built and flight tested in 1976, held the unmanned turbine engine endurance record of 28 hr. 11 min. until surpassed by Global Hawk on March 21, 2001

  • Primary Mission

    • High altitude endurance reconnaissance and surveillance

  • Minimum 24 hours of endurance

  • 750 lbs. payload capability

  • Triple redundant autoland system

  • Dual redundant avionics system

  • Quadruple redundant Command & Control System

  • First major Use of GOTS/COTS hardware


Model 410 long endurance uav

Model 410 Long Endurance UAV

Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance system for civilian or military customers

  • Primary Mission

    • Provide a long-range or long-endurance aerial platform for:

      • Military reconnaissance

      • Electronic communications relay

      • Electronic warfare countermeasure

      • Law enforcement, drug interdiction

      • Border surveillance

      • Disaster area observation

      • Natural resources monitoring


Model 410 long endurance uav continued

Model 410 Long Endurance UAV (continued)

Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance system for civilian or military customers

  • System Components

    • Long Endurance Aerial Vehicle

      • Composite construction

      • Modular design

      • Two-man assembly / disassembly

      • Short, unimproved runway capability

    • Ground Control Station

      • Self contained, transportable, fully integrated

      • Autonomous flight control & mission programming

      • Remote manual flight & sensor control

      • Real-time datalink

      • Image data processing

    • Onboard Flight Control & Navigation

      • Central Flight Control Computer (CFCC)

      • Global Positioning System (GPS)

      • Auto takeoff and landing

  • Payload

    • 300 pound capacity

    • 24 cubic foot volume

    • Stabilized retractable sensor platform


Model 324 medium range

Model 324 Medium Range

Mobile and transportable advanced technology unmanned aerial reconnaissance system

  • Primary Mission

    • Conduct autonomous tactical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance

  • System Components

    • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

      • Composite airframe

      • Ground launch from mobile transport trailer

      • Recovery by parachute with air-bag attenuation system

    • Onboard Flight Control & Navigation

      • Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)

      • Inertial Navigation System (INS)

      • Global Positioning System (GPS)


Model 324 medium range continued

Model 324 Medium Range (continued)

Mobile, and transportable advanced technology unmanned aerial reconnaissance system

  • System Components (con’t)

    • Mobile Launch & Recovery Vehicle (LRV)

      • 8 wheel all-terrain tractor

      • 6 wheel trailer transport/launcher

      • Self-contained command 7 control shelter

      • Autonomous flight control & mission programming

      • Remote manual flight control

      • Command tracking & telemetry system

    • Payload

      • CAI/Recon Optical KS-153A camera

      • Loral IRLS D-500 Infrared line scanner


Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

SI4000 SUMMER 2004

UAV Brief

Ryan Aeronautical

Modern UAV Design & Technology

Norman S. Sakamoto

[email protected]

619.203.5726

File Name.19

As of (date)


Model 350 medium range uav

Model 350 Medium Range UAV

Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial reconnaissance system

  • Mission

    • Provide near real-time optical and/or infrared images of heavily defended areas

      • Target detection

      • Target identification

      • Battle damage assessment

  • System Components

    • Onboard Flight Control & Navigation

      • Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)

      • Inertial Navigation System (INS)

      • Global Positioning System (GPS)

    • Payload

      • Advanced Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance System (ATARS)


Model 350 medium range uav1

Model 350 Medium Range UAV

Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial reconnaissance system

  • System Components

    • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

      • Ground launch

      • Air launch ( from F/A-18 and F-16R)

      • Soft landing recovery by parachute or by Mid-Air Recovery System (MARS)

    • Local Control & Monitoring Station (LCMS)

      • Self-contained, transportable

      • Autonomous flight control & mission programming

      • Remote manual flight control

      • Command, tracking, telemetry & image data link systems

      • Image data processing system


Global hawk hae uav

Global Hawk HAE UAV

High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial Reconnaissance System

  • Mission

    • Provide continuous day / night, high altitude, all weather surveillance and reconnaissance in direct support of allied ground and air forces across the spectrum of conflict

    • Increase the reach of existing and future surveillance systems

    • Extraordinary range and endurance

    • Fewer number of systems required to maintain global ISR coverage


Global hawk hae uav1

Global Hawk HAE UAV

The Global Hawk is an Integrated System

Speed(n.miles/hour)


Global hawk system overview

Global Hawk System Overview


Global hawk vehicle size

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Global hawk integrated sensor suite

Global Hawk Integrated Sensor Suite


Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

SI4000 SUMMER 2004

UAV Brief

Ryan Aeronautical

Future UAV Technology

Norman S. Sakamoto

[email protected]

619.203.5726

File Name.27

As of (date)


Telepresence

Telepresence

Telepresence, also called virtual presences, is participation in an environment from a remote location

  • A subset of virtual reality, telepresence uses external mechanics to view the environment,

  • Lethal UAV weapons delivery systems of the 1970’s put the shooter out of harms way.

  • Ryan developed systems to launch a variety of guided standoff weapons from BGM-34C UAV’s.

  • Virtual Reality software today contains the following features:

    • Object database - descriptions of virtual objects or environments

    • Attribute database - color, texture, orientation

    • Sensor driver- monitors tracking devices to know actual position

    • display driver- reality engine updates object for display

    • Simulation manager - coordinates entire system maintaing proper perspective between objects


Virtual reality web sites

Virtual Reality Web sites

Commercial VR packages are available from many houses on the web.

  • World Tool KitSense8www.sense8.com

  • VR Development SystemsVREAMwww.vream.com

  • Walk ThroughVirtuswww.virtus.com

  • Virtual Reality StudioDanmark SoftwareWWW.domark.com

  • Cyberspace Development KitAutodeskwww.autodesk.com

  • Recent check of the links, Red are no longer pertinent or active.


Fuzzy logic neural nets

Fuzzy Logic / Neural Nets

The development of an adaptive control system to enhance engine performance is on the horizon

  • Fuzzy logic algorithms and hardware have enjoyed a recent development frenzy

  • The technology is ready for transition to UAV class engine controllers when the need is great enough

  • Current F/A-18 Fuzzy logic engine control work is funded and ongoing


Voice directed uav

Voice Directed UAV

Speech recognition could replace some navigation logic allowing mixed use of UAV’s and manned aircraft

  • Neural Network computing methods could be applied to artificial speech recognition and UAV command language

  • This will increase asset interoperability for a force commander or commercial air traffic controller

  • Minimizes ground control station assets


Damage detection failure prediction

Damage Detection / Failure Prediction

UAV Mission Failure rate can improve airframe monitoring and failure prediction.

  • In high threat areas, damage may occur due to hostile action.

  • With proper sensors, a UAV could “decide” to return to base if damage or failures were detected prior to catastrophic failure.

  • Smart structure technologies will detect damage, predict useful life, continue operation at optimal flight conditions.

  • The UAV will react by reducing speed, flying minimum G profile or dumping fuel and returning to base


Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

SI4000 SUMMER 2004

UAV Brief

UAV’s -

Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going

Norman S. Sakamoto

[email protected]

619.203.5726

File Name.33

As of (date)


Customers

Customers

  • Sandia

  • Los Alamos

  • LLL

  • NASA

  • DARPA

  • DARO

  • MDA

  • NATO

  • DEA

  • DNA

  • DOT

  • CIA

  • FBI

  • NSA

  • INS

  • USAF

  • USA

  • USN

  • USCG

  • RCAF

  • JDF

  • GOI

  • GOE


Performance

Performance

  • Altitude7 Ft to 100,000 Ft

  • Velocity60 Kts to Mach 4

  • Endurance7 Minutes to 40 hours

  • Range25 NMi to 14,000 Nmi

  • Take-Off Gross Weight200 Lb to 34,500 Lb

  • Payload Weight25 Lb to 3,000 Lb


Missions

Missions

  • IMINT

  • SIGINT

  • GPS Pseudolite

  • Air Sampling

  • Strike

  • EW/ESM

  • Decoy

  • BPI/BPLI

  • Target

  • Cargo / Logistics

  • ACN


Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics

  • Twin Verticals

  • V - Tails

  • Canards

  • V/STOL

  • Non Atmospheric

  • Hypersonic

  • Conventional Airfoil

  • Rogallo Wing

  • Laminar Flow

  • SuperCritical

  • Ailerons, Elevators, Rudders, Ruddervators, Spoilers, Speed Brakes, Flaps, Elevons

  • BLC


Airframe

Airframe

  • Metallic

    • Aluminum

    • Steel

    • Titanium

    • Magnesium

  • Composite

    • Fiberglass

    • Graphite

  • Molded

    • Sheet Molded Compound


Low observables

Low Observables

  • Radar

  • Acoustic

  • Visual

  • IR


Propulsion

Propulsion

  • Reciprocating ( Aircraft)

  • 2 Cylinder 2 Cycle

  • Turbo Prop

  • Turbo Jet

  • Turbo Fan

  • Ramjet

  • Pulse Jet

  • Rocket

  • Electric Motors


Payload sensors

Payload Sensors

  • Chaff

  • Active EW Jammers

  • COMINT

  • ELINT

  • ESM

  • Ordnance

  • Leaflets/Propaganda

  • Cameras

    • Still

    • Motion

    • Panoramic

  • Electro-Optical

  • FLIR

  • IRLS

  • SAR

  • ISAR

  • IFSAR


Navigation

Navigation

  • Dead Reckoning

  • Doppler

  • LORAN / Omega

  • INS

  • GPS/DGPS

  • INMARSAT


Flight controls

Flight Controls

  • AHRS (Gyros)

  • Inertial

  • Formation Flight

  • Autonomous Flight

    • Active Real-Time

      • Re-Planning

      • Re-Tasking

  • Analog

  • Digital

  • Hybrid

  • Duplex

  • Triplex

  • Electrostatic


Secondary power

Secondary Power

  • Batteries

  • Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)

  • Solar

  • Generator


Actuation system

Actuation System

  • Hydraulic

  • Pnuematic

  • Electro-Mechanical

    • Linear/Rotary

    • Push/Pull

    • Cables/Pulleys


Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

UAVs - Current Development

and Emerging Uses


Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

The Networked Vision of the Future

UAVs Are A Major Part of the Vision


Uav development and history at northrop grumman corporation ryan aeronautical center

Warfighter’s Challenge ~ Future Combat

  • Regional & Global Asymmetric Warfare

    • Proliferation of Ballistic Missile/Cruise Missile Threats

    • Proliferation of WMD Capabilities /Systems ~ and the Will To Use Them

  • Uncertainty In Situational Awareness/Decisions

  • Non-Traditional Roles & Missions ~ With Force Structure Pressures

  • Acquisition of Advanced Technology Force Structures

    • Technologies, Applications, Systems & Insertion Sequencing

    • Force Mix, Postures, Basing, CONOPS & Employment Concepts

    • Sustaining Capability in the Transition/Transformation

    • Establishing & Sustaining Affordability - No Immunity To Budget Constraints

Understanding & Integrating UAVs Is A Significant Part of the Challenge


Some of the emerging concepts requirements that uavs can meet

Some of the Emerging Concepts & RequirementsThat UAVs Can Meet

Military

BM/C4ISR

BPLI - Theater Ballistic Missile Defense

Cruise Missile Defense - BM/C4ISR & Intercept

Battlespace ~ Infosphere Comms & Reach-Back

Kinetic & Non-Kinetic Combat Operations

PSYOPs & SOF Operations

SBIRS Low Adjunct & Tactical Surrogate

Satellite / Sensor Test Bed

Space Sensing

Space Surveillance

Space Tracking

Space Comms/Data Relay

Military Science

Military R&D

Augmentation of GPS

These Lists Are

By No Means

Comprehensive

Civil Authority & Commercial Applications

Communications

Law Enforcement

Drug Interdiction

Disaster Preparedness & Management

Global Meteorological (NOAA)

Forest Fire Surveillance

Environmental Monitoring, Management & Enforcement

Agricultural Resource Surveillance & Management

Natural Resource Surveillance & Management

Scientific Research


Questions

Questions?


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