MUFS at agro-ecological landscape level
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MUFS at agro-ecological landscape level Setting strategic functional priorities and fostering multiple uses. Gerardo E. van Halsema Centre for Water and Climate Wageningen University based on GAWI & Netherlands-Vietnam WFE Partnership. Multiple ecosystem services.

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MUFS at agro-ecological landscape levelSetting strategic functional priorities and fostering multiple uses

Gerardo E. van Halsema

Centre for Water and Climate

Wageningen University

based on GAWI & Netherlands-Vietnam WFE Partnership

Multiple ecosystem services
Multiple ecosystem services

  • MUFS are defined in terms of ecosystem services (MA):

    • provisioning services (agriculture / food provision)

    • regulating services (flood protection, water retention, water purification, carbon sequestration etc)

    • cultural services (tourism, recreational, spiritual)

    • supporting services (nutrient cycles, pest control)

    • biodiversity

Iwrm mufs

  • Supply management focus of IWRM distracts from MUSF:

    • focus on meeting multiple demands from multiple sectors, uses & functions polemicizes distribution among single uses

  • Multiple uses of water are fact of life when considering the resources base:

  • water is shared and passed on along the ‘water chain’ and depleted, polluted, retained or diverted by various uses

    • eg forest & wetland ecosystems, hydropower & industry, inland & coastal fisheries, rangeland, floodplains, (irrigated) agriculture, urban waste water etc.

  • one use affects & interacts with the other use – negatively or positively

  • focus on water use, and specifically on interactions of water use with other uses

Enhancing multiple ecosystem services
Enhancing multiple ecosystem services

  • Sustainable water use = assuring a balance in ecosystem services

    • diminishing/mitigating negative water interactions of agriculture

    • fostering non—provisioning services and focus on positive water interactions for agricultural uses

  • Functional & strategic approach to ecosystem services at the landscape level

    • assign primary functions to ecosystem services (agriculture, flood control, biodiversity)

    • devise criteria for multiple use of “secondary” ecosystem services (within ecological boundary of primary function)

Agro ecosystems in coastal vietnam
Agro-ecosystems in Coastal Vietnam

Setting the scene:

Sectoral (mono) water uses have been intensified:

  • irrigated rice

  • boom in shrimp cultivation in brackish water zone

    • severe pollution

    • degradation of aquatic ecosystem

    • production declines in mono shrimp culture

  • degradation of coastal (mangrove) forest

    • loss of biodiversity

Agro ecosystems in coastal vietnam1
Agro-ecosystems in Coastal Vietnam

Future challenges of Climate Change (Vietnam in top 5):

  • rising see levels

  • typhoon storm surges

  • higher intensity rainfall

  • higher peak river flows

  • => Increasing demands for regulating services/functions:

    • coastal defense

    • water retention & flood protection (brackish & fresh)

  • Agro ecosystems in coastal vietnam2
    Agro-ecosystems in Coastal Vietnam

    II Fresh Flood Rice/Aquaculture

    I Fresh Rice/Aquaculture

    III Brackish Aquaculture/fisheries

    IV Saline/Brackish Forest/Aquaculture/fisheries

    Mufs in coastal vietnam
    MUFS in Coastal Vietnam

    Four strategic functional sub-systems with multiple use:

    • Irrigated rice:

      • 1st: food (rice & fresh fish culture)

      • 2nd: fresh water supply brackish zone (salt & circulation)

      • 3rd: rainwater retention

    • Fresh floodplains:

      • 1st: flood protection

      • 2nd: food (rice & fresh fish culture)

    • Brackish zone:

      • 1st : food (aquaculture through poly-culture and mangrove filters)

      • 2nd : salt water retention

      • 3rd : biodiversity

    • Coastal forest:

      • 1st : coastal protection

      • 2nd : biodiversity

      • 3rd : food (fishery and polyculture)

    Mufs in coastal vietnam1
    MUFS in Coastal Vietnam

    • Focus on the water interactions between the uses/functions

      • manage as a whole;

    • BUT: innovate multiple water use techniques & practices that support the water interactions

    Mufs in malawi wetlands
    MUFS in Malawi wetlands

    R.J. Bakema, G.W. Howard and A. P. Wood