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Euclidean geometry and trigonometry

y

Euclidean geometry means flat space

sine and cosine

ACME

1

q

x

Calculating

Trigonometric identities

(1) Line segment

A

B

(2) Extend line segment into line

D

C

F

E

(5) Parallel postulate

(4) All right angles are equal

(3) Use line segment to define circle

Euclidean geometry: Flat space

Non-embeddable spaces

(Cannot be drawn as rippled surfaces in higher-dimensional flat spaces)

Flat

Curved

(5) Parallel postulate

Euclidean geometry: Pythagorean theorem

Want to show

a2 + b2 = c2

c

b

(a - b)2 + 4ab/2 = c2

ab/2

a2 -2ab + b2 + 2ab = c2

a

ab/2

a2 + b2 = c2

a- b

b

(a– b)2

ab/2

ab/2

Euclidean geometry and trigonometry

y

Euclidean geometry means flat space

sine and cosine

ACME

1

q

x

Calculating

Trigonometric identities

Euclidean geometry and trigonometry

y

Euclidean geometry means flat space

sine and cosine

ACME

1

q

x

Calculating

Trigonometric identities

1

0

30°

45°

60°

90°

0.524

0.785

1.047

1.571

2.094

120°

2.356

135°

2.618

150°

3.142

180°

3.665

210°

3.927

225°

4.189

240°

4.712

270°

5.236

300°

5.498

315°

5.760

330°

6.283

360°

-1

Euclidean geometry and trigonometry

y

Euclidean geometry means flat space

sine and cosine

ACME

1

q

x

Calculating

Trigonometric identities

Trigonometry: sine and cosine in terms of right triangles

q

r

1

R

r sin(q)

sin(q)

Rsin(q)

q

rcos(q)

Rcos(q)

cos(q)

q

Proving identities: Angle addition formula

Want to show

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