Ecology
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Ecology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Ecology. The study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Biotic Factors. Bio = life Biotic factors – All living organisms in a biosphere Examples: Plants, Animals. Abiotic Factors. Nonliving factors in an environment Examples: Air currents Temperature Moisture Light

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Ecology

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Ecology

The study of interactions between organisms and their environments.


Biotic Factors

  • Bio = life

  • Biotic factors – All living organisms in a biosphere

  • Examples: Plants, Animals


Abiotic Factors

  • Nonliving factors in an environment

  • Examples:

    • Air currents

    • Temperature

    • Moisture

    • Light

    • Soil


Ecological Organization of Life

Biosphere

Ecosystems

Communities

Populations

Organisms


Organism Population

  • An individual form of life that is capable of carrying out the life processes.

  • A group of individuals of the same species is a population.


Community Ecosystem

  • Populations of different species interact to form communities.

  • A community and its abiotic environment are an ecosystem


Biosphere

  • The living organisms and their environment composing the biosphere.


Feeding Relationships

  • Autotroph: An organism that synthesizes its energy from photosynthesis.

  • Heterotroph: An organism that cannot synthesize its own food.

    • Carnivores: Meat eaters

    • Omnivores: Meat and plant eaters

    • Herbivores: Plant eaters

    • Decomposers: Breakdown dead and decaying organisms.


Trophic Relationships

  • Autotrophs

  • 1st level consumers (herbivores)

  • 2nd level consumers

  • 3rd level consumers

  • 4th level consumers

    (top predators)


Food Chain

The transfer of food energy from one organism to another in an ecological community.

A food chain begins with a producer.


Food WebA series of interrelated food chains in an ecosystem.


RULE OF 10

  • Only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.

  • Example:

    • It takes 100 kgs of plant materials (producers) to support 10 kgs of herbivores

    • It takes 10 kgs of herbivores

      to support 1 kg of

      1st level predator


Pyramid of Numbers


Symbiosis = “Living Together”


Examples of Parasitism (+/-)


Examples of Mutualism (+/+)


Commensalism (+/0)


Water Cycle

  • Evaporation

  • Transpiration

  • Precipitation

  • Runoff

  • Groundwater


Carbon Cycle

  • Combustion

  • Photosynthesis

  • Respiration

  • Decomposition

  • Fossil fuels


Nitrogen Cycle

  • Atmospheric nitrogen

  • Runoff

  • Fertilizers

  • Decomposition

  • Nitrogen fixing

  • Synthesis of

    amino acids


Niche vs. Habitat

  • The role and location of an organism within an ecological community.

  • The environment where a plant or animal lives.


Biomes

A large community of plants and animals that occupies a distinct region.

Biomes can be:

Terrestrial

Aquatic


Biomes of the World


Tropical Rain Forest


Savanna


Desert


Grassland


Deciduous Forest


Tundra


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