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Ecology. The study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Biotic Factors. Bio = life Biotic factors – All living organisms in a biosphere Examples: Plants, Animals. Abiotic Factors. Nonliving factors in an environment Examples: Air currents Temperature Moisture Light

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ecology

Ecology

The study of interactions between organisms and their environments.

biotic factors
Biotic Factors
  • Bio = life
  • Biotic factors – All living organisms in a biosphere
  • Examples: Plants, Animals
abiotic factors
Abiotic Factors
  • Nonliving factors in an environment
  • Examples:
    • Air currents
    • Temperature
    • Moisture
    • Light
    • Soil
ecological organization of life
Ecological Organization of Life

Biosphere

Ecosystems

Communities

Populations

Organisms

organism population
Organism Population
  • An individual form of life that is capable of carrying out the life processes.
  • A group of individuals of the same species is a population.
community ecosystem
Community Ecosystem
  • Populations of different species interact to form communities.
  • A community and its abiotic environment are an ecosystem
biosphere
Biosphere
  • The living organisms and their environment composing the biosphere.
feeding relationships
Feeding Relationships
  • Autotroph: An organism that synthesizes its energy from photosynthesis.
  • Heterotroph: An organism that cannot synthesize its own food.
    • Carnivores: Meat eaters
    • Omnivores: Meat and plant eaters
    • Herbivores: Plant eaters
    • Decomposers: Breakdown dead and decaying organisms.
trophic relationships
Trophic Relationships
  • Autotrophs
  • 1st level consumers (herbivores)
  • 2nd level consumers
  • 3rd level consumers
  • 4th level consumers

(top predators)

food chain
Food Chain

The transfer of food energy from one organism to another in an ecological community.

A food chain begins with a producer.

rule of 10
RULE OF 10
  • Only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.
  • Example:
    • It takes 100 kgs of plant materials (producers) to support 10 kgs of herbivores
    • It takes 10 kgs of herbivores

to support 1 kg of

1st level predator

water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Groundwater
carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle
  • Combustion
  • Photosynthesis
  • Respiration
  • Decomposition
  • Fossil fuels
nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Atmospheric nitrogen
  • Runoff
  • Fertilizers
  • Decomposition
  • Nitrogen fixing
  • Synthesis of

amino acids

niche vs habitat
Niche vs. Habitat
  • The role and location of an organism within an ecological community.
  • The environment where a plant or animal lives.
biomes
Biomes

A large community of plants and animals that occupies a distinct region.

Biomes can be:

Terrestrial

Aquatic

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