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Chapter Resources. Click on one of the following icons to go to that resource. earth.msscience.com. Image Bank. Foldables. Chapter Summary. Chapter Review Questions. Standardized Test Practice. earth.msscience.com. Image Bank. Click on individual thumbnail images to view larger versions.

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Chapter resources

Chapter Resources

Click on one of the following icons to go to that resource.

earth.msscience.com

Image Bank

Foldables

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Questions

Standardized Test Practice


Chapter resources

earth.msscience.com


Chapter resources

Image Bank

Click on individual thumbnail images to view larger versions.


Chapter resources

Image Bank

Transfer Images

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Chapter resources

Image Bank

Mineral


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Crystal


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Table – Crystal Systems


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Cooling Lava


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Halite Crystals (salt)


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Table: Elements in Earth’s Crust


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Brightly Colored Mineral


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Table – Mineral Hardness


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Mineral with Nonmetallic Luster


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Streak Test


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Gems


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Table – Minerals and Their Gems


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The Hope Diamond


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Frying Pan


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Golf Club


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Image Bank

Calcite


Chapter resources

Foldables

Minerals

Make the following Foldable to help you better understand minerals.


Chapter resources

Foldables

Fold a vertical sheet of notebook paper from side to side.


Chapter resources

Foldables

Cut along every third line of only the top layer to form tabs.


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Foldables

Label each tab with a question.


Chapter resources

Foldables

Ask Questions

Before you read the chapter, write questions you have about minerals on the front of the tabs. As you read the chapter, add more questions and write answers under the appropriate tabs.


Chapter resources

Reviewing Main Ideas

1

Minerals

  • Much of what you use each day is made at least in some part from minerals.

  • All minerals are formed by natural processes and are inorganic solids with definite chemical compositions and orderly arrangements of atoms.

  • Minerals have crystal structures in one of six major crystal systems.


Chapter resources

Reviewing Main Ideas

2

Mineral Identification

  • Hardness is a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.

  • Luster describes how light reflects from a mineral’s surface.

  • Streak is the color of the powder left by a mineral on an unglazed porcelain tile.


Chapter resources

Reviewing Main Ideas

2

Mineral Identification

  • Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces have cleavage. When minerals break with rough or jagged surfaces, they are displaying fracture.

  • Some minerals have special properties that aid in identifying them.


Chapter resources

Reviewing Main Ideas

3

Uses of Minerals

  • Gems are minerals that are more rare and beautiful than common minerals.

  • Minerals are useful for their physical properties and for the elements they contain.


Chapter resources

Chapter Review

Question 1

What is the difference between cleavage and fracture?

Answer

Both refer to the way a mineral breaks. Minerals that break along smooth surfaces have cleavage. Those that break with uneven surfaces have fracture.


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Chapter Review

Question 2

Hardness is the measure of how easily a mineral can be __________.

A. streaked

B. refined

C. scratched

D. smelted


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Chapter Review

Answer

The answer is C. Hardness is a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.


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Chapter Review

Question 3

What is the streak of a mineral?

Answer

Streak is the color of a mineral when it is in powdered form and is determined by rubbing the mineral on an unglazed porcelain tile.


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Chapter Review

Question 4

Which of these is a term for metallic luster?

A. glassy

B. pearly

C. shiny

D. silky


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Chapter Review

Answer

The answer is C. Minerals with metallic luster shine like metal. The remaining terms describe nonmetallic luster.


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Chapter Review

Question 5

Which of the following is a unique property of calcite?

A. fizzes when hydrochloric acid is put onto it

B. has a striking blue color

C. is attracted to magnets

D. is the softest mineral on the Mohs scale


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Chapter Review

Answer

The answer is A. Calcite fizzes when hydrochloric acid is put onto it.


Chapter resources

An unknown mineral leaves an orange-red mark when rubbed on unglazed porcelain tile. It has

about the same hardness as your fingernail. What is the identity of the mineral?

Standardized Test Practice

Question 1


Chapter resources

Standardized Test Practice

A. copper

B. galena

C. hematite

D. magnetite


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Standardized Test Practice

Answer

The answer is A. Copper has an orange-red streak; hematite has a red-brown streak. Copper is softer than hematite.


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Standardized Test Practice

Question 2

What group of minerals is the most abundant in Earth’s crust?

A. carbonates

B. dolomites

C. magnetites

D. silicates


Chapter resources

Standardized Test Practice

Answer

The answer is D. Silicates are composed of silicon and oxygen, which are the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust.


Chapter resources

Standardized Test Practice

Question 3

A mineral has a red to brown streak and cannot be scratched with an iron nail. What is the identity of the mineral?

A. copper

B. galena

C. hematite

D. magnetite


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Standardized Test Practice

Answer

The answer is C. Hematite has a red streak and a hardness of 5.5–6.5. Since the hardness of an iron nail is about 4.5, it will not scratch hematite.


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Standardized Test Practice

Question 4

If a mineral sample can be scratched by a steel file but not an iron nail, what is the hardness of the sample?

C. 3–4

D. 5–6

A. 1–2

B. 2–3


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Standardized Test Practice

Answer

The answer is D. The iron nail has a hardness of 4.5, which will not scratch a mineral with hardness of 5–6.


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Standardized Test Practice

Question 5

Which mineral will scratch gypsum but not fluorite?

A. apatite

B. calcite

C. feldspar

D. talc


Chapter resources

Standardized Test Practice

Answer

The answer is B. The hardness of calcite is greater than that of gypsum, but less than that of fluorite.


Chapter resources

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Chapter resources

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