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Wood Energy and Cleantech – SWOT- analysis, Östergötland Johan Niskanen, East Sweden Energy Agency . Wood Energy and Cleantech – The Östergötland Region, Sweden. 13 municipalities 427 000 inhabitants 2 major cities (>100 000 inhabitants) 350 major enterprises

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Wood Energy and Cleantech – SWOT- analysis, Östergötland

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Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

Wood Energy and Cleantech –

SWOT- analysis, Östergötland

Johan Niskanen, East Sweden Energy Agency


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

Wood Energy and Cleantech –

The Östergötland Region, Sweden

  • 13 municipalities

  • 427 000 inhabitants

  • 2 major cities (>100 000 inhabitants)

  • 350 major enterprises

  • 20 TWh energy consumption

  • District heating in all 13 municipalities, all fueled with bio fuels to some extent


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

The SWOT-analysis is building upon a system perspective therefore the supply chain of wood fuel in the region are the basis of the study.


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

SUSTAINABLE FOREST HARVESTING

The sustainable forest part in the chain is here defined as the (main) provider of raw material in the system. The forest is however also important from other perspectives (social, economic, environmental; biological and chemical).


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

FUEL PRODUCTION AND REFINING OF WOOD PRODUCTS

  • Fuel production and refining of wood products is here defined as the production of wood fuel, from the regional forest, for the Östergötland region.

  • Different units of wood production

  • Different kind of fuels

  • Other aspects


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

BOILERS AND INFRASTRUCTURE OF

THE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

The technology study of Östergötland (Work package 5) in the Wood energy and clean tech project presents the supply chain from a boiler and district heating perspective. The SWOT-analysis is mainly focusing on the boilers, the fuels and the potential future supply and demand.


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

END CONSUMERS AND END USERS

The end consumer is here defined as the buildings (industrial, offices and homes) that uses district heating. The analysis of the end consumers and end users is foremost of interest when it comes to policy aspects (e.g. energy efficiency policy’s from the European Union) and technological aspects (e.g. the potential impact of low energy housing).


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

SUSTAINABLE FOREST HARVESTING

Strengths

Good knowledge and long-term culture on forest and forestry issues in the region of Östergötland.

Relatively good science-based knowledge on limits for sustainable production and extraction and on-going research on ecology and forest fuel logistic systems funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (i.e. at SLU and Skogforsk )

A well functioning infrastructure and well developed logistic systems: i.e. all productive wood is reachable via available roads.

Weaknesses

Occurring examples of extraction of valuable dead wood and of track formation and stream-water damage from the additional use of heavy machinery. This sometimes increases costs when restoration is demanded. Frequency not well enough monitored.

There is an upper limit to the amount of wood fuels that can be extracted sustainably from the forest.

Forest economy and sustainability is vulnerable where the dependency on one tree species (Norway spruce monocultures) is high. Other forest values are low which may reduce interest in forest management.

Opportunities

Possibilities to increase the amount of Branches and Tops into the energy system.

Changing climate; shorter winters means a warmer climate on a longer time during the year: improved growth.

Possibilities to increase the extraction in redundant farmland. This could often increase the biodiversity in these ecosystems.

Possibilities to extract wood fuels out of unused land (near roads, near the railway, under power lines).

New wood species and breeding potentials.

Threats

Short-term economical perspectives, neglect or ignorance might be a threat to the sustainable forestry (chemical and biological).

The Swedish forest legislation is weak.

The demand for cleaning and clearing of overgrowing bushes/trees on pastures in the rules of the European Union agri-environmental subsidies could be misused, by bio wood companies or landowners, so that alsobiologically valuable bushes/trees/dead wood is taken out (which is not demanded by the subsidies rules).

Lower legitimacy if environmental objectives don’t get fulfilled.


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

FUEL PRODUCTION AND REFINING OF WOOD PRODUCTS

Strengths

Good knowledge of the production of bio fuel’s in the region. As well as management of returnable wood.

There are regional raw materials (from the forest), regional producers of pellets (wood chips) and also regional mills which produces saw powder as a by-product.

We are in the frontline when it comes to Research (e.g. fuel mixes).

Weaknesses

Possible damages to the roads when transporting raw material or wood products from the forests. This increases costs.

High usage of RT-wood and waste fuels due to the low price.

Few boilers and few district heating companies.

Regional pricing of wood fuels.

Opportunities

Possibly rising prizes on fossil fuels.

The municipal energy planning is in progress; a regional platform and regional statistics might improve.

There are still some fossil fuels in the district heating system (as well in some of the regions industries)

An updated transport fleet might be a potential for the further use of wood energy in the regional system.

Technological advancements such as heat treatment (torrification) of the wood fuel.

Threats

Other fuels already in the system, e.g. household wastes.

New deposits of fossil fuels might be found (e.g. natural gas). This might decrease the relative profitability of wood fuel products.

Technology and policies for the improvement of buildings (energy efficiency) might slow down the expansion and the demand of wood fuels for the district heating system. This might mean a need for new ideas in wood products.


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

BOILERS AND INFRASTRUCTURE OF

THE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

Strengths

Good knowledge on district heating issues in the region (via University, municipalities and private companies)

Follow-up on emissions from (clean) tech units and also CAB control of the units.

The Best Available Technique-principle.

A widely spread infrastructure of the district heating network.

Good cooperation between the different district heating companies.

Weaknesses

The demand of district heating is quite stabilized in the region.

Opportunities

Conscious (green) profiling of companies.

Co-firing (mixing of coal and wood fuels). Especially important for the large plants. They can reduce the amount of coal.

A possibility to increase efficiency.

The development of small-scale CHP:s might spread the usage of these boilers in the region.

Joint ventures between district heating companies and the industry sector.


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

END CONSUMERS AND END USERS

Strengths

Pellet and wood chip boilers are quit small and the fuel is easy to transport.

Weaknesses

Few suppliers of district heating.

Opportunities

Regulations and guide lines from the European Union towards sustainable forestry and the usage of more bio fuels.

20-20-20 and other policies.

Threats

Technology and policies for the improvement of buildings (energy efficiency) might reduce the need of wood for the district heating system.


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

Summary

  • Strengths

  • Stability in the system, in the chain

  • Software – knowledge

  • Hardware - well-established and well-spread

  • Weaknesses

  • Stabilized

  • Lack of regional supply

  • Lack of regional planning

  • Opportunities

  • Policy progress

  • Other assortments and wood products

  • Possibilities to increase the extraction

  • Threats

  • Household Waste

  • Technology and policies energy efficieny might reduce the need of wood for the district heating system.

  • Fossil Fuels


Wood energy and cleantech swot analysis sterg tland

Wood Energy and Cleantech –

The Östergötland Region, Sweden

Thank you for your attention!


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