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WORK IN FRANCE : MAJOR CHANGES. Brigitte CHARLES-PAUVERS Franco-Chinese International Management Center Institute of Business Administration University of Nantes (France) Research group : MODELISACTION. THE STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION. Productive and employment landscape

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WORK IN FRANCE : MAJOR CHANGES

Brigitte CHARLES-PAUVERS

Franco-Chinese International Management Center

Institute of Business Administration

University of Nantes (France)

Research group : MODELISACTION


THE STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION

  • Productive and employment landscape

  • Main characteristics of work in France

  • Major changes in the companies’ work politics

  • Workers and companies : flexibility / organizational commitment

  • Conclusion



PRODUCTIVE AND EMPLOYMENT LANDSCAPEEU : a majority of small and medium size companies

Companies under 250 employees

2/3 of total employment


PRODUCTIVE AND EMPLOYMENT LANDSCAPEXXXXXXXXXXXX

  • A policy of merger between large companes : Renault-Nissan , Vivendi????

    • In France, 1/3 of companies < 500 employees realize 29 % of exports and 22 % of imports


Productive and employment landscape more unemployment in eu than in the usa
PRODUCTIVE AND EMPLOYMENT LANDSCAPEMore unemployment in EU than in the USA


WORK IN France : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSThe role of the French Government

  • The French government plays a fundamental role in the companies’ employment policy :

    • numerous contracts are subsidized : Contrat emploi-jeune

    • a large part of the social bargaining framework is lie down by the government : “35h laws”


WORK IN France : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSMinimum salaries

SMIC, low salary policies XXXXX


WORK IN France : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSManpower cost

Manpower cost in France + 20% / USA



WORK IN France : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSPermanent worker‘s status is splitting up

Short term workers : 11%

1985-2000 : temp work X 5

short term X 3


Work in france main characteristics part time work develops
WORK IN France : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSPart time work develops

Part time work : 18%


Work in france main characteristics more and more people work in services
WORK IN FRANCE : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSmore and more people work in services

Services : 42.6 % in 1999

+4 % in 98-99

Industry : -0.9 % in 98-99


WORK IN FRANCE : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSAn economy increasingly open to women

women at work : 42.1 % in 1975 48.1% in 2000


Work in france main characteristics the role of trade unions
WORK IN FRANCE : MAIN CHARACTERISTICSThe role of trade unions

  • An increasing gap between :

  • trade unions negotiating major agreements

  • workers (8% are union members)


MAJOR CHANGES IN THE EMPLOYMENT POLICIESXXXXXXXXXXXX

  • An increasing need for flexibility : internal and external

  • The legal obligation to reduce the time work to 35 H per week, with a collective bargaining in the company

  • An opportunity to reexamine the strategy of the company, the productive process and to reorganize the work, without increasing the labor cost with different possibilities, :

    • time modulation, based on a definite period : a cycle , depending of the seasonal characteristics

    • reduction of the daily time of work

    • larger opening time


Major changes in the employment policies xxxxxxxxxxxx
MAJOR CHANGES IN THE EMPLOYMENT POLICIESXXXXXXXXXXXX

  • Companies show caution in recruitment : extra hours, and part time work inside the company ; the quasi permanent use of short term contract


WORKERS AND COMPANIES : FLEXIBILITY / ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT HRM policies

  • Three categories of workers move in :

    • hot skills,

    • multifunctional permanent,

    • McDo workers : short term, temporary, subcontractors

  • HRM policies : more and more individualized and adapted to the category, specially toward the core one : training, career, payment


WORKERS AND COMPANIES : FLEXIBILITY / ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Some workers asking for different working conditions


WORKERS AND COMPANIES : FLEXIBILITY / ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

  • A sort of “commercial contract “ characterize the relationship between core employees and companies

  • Their overall organizational behavior looks like a consumer : individualistic, ready to leave the company


WORKERS AND COMPANIES : FLEXIBILITY / ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

  • Three ?????? major difficulties for the companies :

    • a shortage of talents

    • a threat of leaving : 10 %of executives moved in 2000

    • a competition in the social and tax fields

    • difficulties to create and maintain a collective


CONCLUSION

  • In a a global context of redefinition of the companies ’ boarders :

    • - subordinates are becoming assistants

    • - the hierarchical channel is disrupted

  • The employees’ mobility is necessary

    • - they move inside the organization

    • - their skills are the only criteria of evaluation (different from the post qualification)

  • The flexibility is accepted

    • - external flexibility

    • - work and organizational flexibility

  • The trade unions are again in the news

    • - they negociate a lot of agreements

    • - people come out on strike vicariously (public employees)

  • The European social is on ...


CONCLUSION

Still a French exception ?


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