Chapter 15-1. Aydin Matney. Preston Nanninga. The Call to Arms. Taking Sides in the War. Lincoln asked the nation’s governors to raise 75,000 troops to take the rebellion down. The support for the war was so high, that many states begged to send more troops than what Lincoln wanted.
The Call to Arms
Taking Sides in the War
Lincoln asked the nation’s governors to raise 75,000 troops to take the rebellion down. The support for the war was so high, that many states begged to send more troops than what Lincoln wanted.
Two days after the attack on Fort Sumter, Lincoln declared that a rebellion existed in the South, that must be stopped.
In April, Virginia left the Union. In May, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina followed suit. However, 50 western counties of Virginia did not support the South, so they split from Virginia in 1861, forming West Virginia in 1863.
Support for the war was not in every state in the Union. The Tennessee governor said that his state will not furnish a single man to fight against it’s brothers. Kentucky and Missouri made similar remarks. Maryland and Delaware did not respond at all.
Map of the U.S, Civil War era
Purple: Border States that stayed with the Union
Kentucky at first was neutral, until Confederate forces invaded it in September 1861, which pushed Kentucky to join the Union.
The border states during the Civil War were Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. These were slave states that did not secede.
In Maryland, southern sympathizers destroyed railroads and telegraph lines, making Lincoln put Maryland under martial law, which gives the military law complete control and takes away the rights of civilians.
Missouri government sided with the South, but when Union supporters started to fight within the state, Missouri ended up staying in the Union.
Southern Advantages: The South were fighting in there home territory, getting support from locals. Also, many of the nations best generals resided from the U.S Army to fight for the south, such as, Albert Johnston, Joseph Johnston, and Robert E. Lee.
Northern Advantages: Out of the 130,000 factories in the U.S, 110,000 were in the North, they also had twice as much railroad track and farmland. The North also had a population advantage.
The North planned to win the war as quickly as possible. Lincoln ordered the navy to blockade southern seaports. He hoped to cut off their supplies of over the seas goods and block oversea sales of cotton. The North wanted to take control over the Mississippi River in order to cut the south in half. They also planned to invade Richmond, Virginia, the South’s capital.
The Confederates did not need and want to invade the North, they wanted to defend their land until the Union got tired of fighting. They wanted to get aid from Britain and other European nations in exchange for badly wanted cotton.
A political cartoon featuring Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis.
By July 1861, the Northern newspapers wanted the capture of Richmond, Virginia, because it would end the war quickly.
The Confederates made the Union retreat, ending in a Confederate victory.
Irvin McDowell, a Union general, rounded up 30,000 men and left Washington on the march to Virginia. About the same number of Confederates were waiting in a railroad center 25 miles in Manassas. Many people watched the battle, even having picnics, expecting a easy Union victory.
First Battle of Bull Run
Why Bull Run you ask? Bull Run was the name of a river north of Manassas. It happened on July 1. At this battle, a Southern general, by the name of Thomas Jackson, also known as Stonewall Jackson, Because him and his troops looked like a stonewall.
Civil War prison camp
¾ of a soldier’s time was spent in camp training up to 10 hours a day, when they were not training they stood guard, wrote home, and gathered firewood.
Both sides kept prisoners of war. Many of the prison camps were overcrowded, in fact, 10% of soldiers who died in the war died in prison camps.
A meal they often had was hardtack a cracker-like product.
Camp conditions were horrible. Outbreaks of smallpox, typhoid fever, and other diseases.