Biomass utilization the south s industry of the future
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Biomass Utilization The South’s Industry of the Future. Dr Liam E. Leightley FUTURE TRENDS FOR FORESTRY MS SAF ANNUAL MEETING, JACKSON, MARCH 2005. BIOMASS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR AMERICA.

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Biomass utilization the south s industry of the future

Biomass UtilizationThe South’s Industry of the Future

Dr Liam E. Leightley

FUTURE TRENDS FOR FORESTRY

MS SAF ANNUAL MEETING,

JACKSON, MARCH 2005


Biomass and its contribution to renewable energy for america

BIOMASS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR AMERICA

  • As a source of energy Biomass is the largest domestic source of renewable energy providing over 3% of total U.S. energy consumption, and surpassing hydropower.

  • US DOE and USDA support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce oil and gas imports and support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies


Biomass

BIOMASS

  • Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis , including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood wastes and residues, plants ( including aquatic plants), grasses, residues, fibers, and animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other waste materials. Biomass is generally produced in a sustainable manner from water and carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. There are three main categories of biomass – primary, secondary and tertiary.


Biomass utilization the south s industry of the future

A GOAL OF 30% DISPLACEMENT OF CURRENT PETROLEUM CONSUMPTION AND THE PRODUCTION OF 1 BILLION TONS OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK PER YEAR?Trick or treat?

  • Answer from USDA and DOE is that

    1 Billion dry tons of Biomass feedstock can be produced per year.

  • So what is the deal for Forestry and the current state of play?


Biomass from the forest resource

BIOMASS FROM THE FOREST RESOURCE

  • 52 MM tons fuel wood

  • 144 MM dry tons of residues from wood processing mills and pulp and paper mills

  • 47 MM dry tons of urban wood wastes

  • 64 MM dry tons logging and site clearing

  • 60MM dry tons of biomass from fuel reduction

  • Net - 368 MM dry tons.


Current biomass feedstock consumption

CURRENT BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK CONSUMPTION

  • Slightly more than 75% of biomass consumption – 142 mm tons, comes from forestlands

  • 2003 – biomass contributed nearly 2.9 quads BTU to the nations energy supply ; ~ 3% of the Nations energy consumption of ~ 98 quads.

  • More than 70% of this biomass comes from wood residues and pulping liquors generated from the forest products industry.


What do we mean when we talk about forest resources as biomass

WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE TALK ABOUT FOREST RESOURCES AS BIOMASS?

  • PRIMARY – logging residues; fuel treatments

  • SECONDARY – primary wood processing mill wastes; secondary mill wastes; pulping liquors

  • TERTIARY – Urban wood wastes


Resource assesment

RESOURCE ASSESMENT

  • Forests are expected to provide multiple use –benefits, including wildlife habitat, recreation, and ecological and environmental services

  • US Timberland – 29% publicly owned. 13% forest industry and 58% privately owned

  • Fuel wood – 35 MM tons of current consumption for residential and commercial use and electrical utility use.

  • What about short rotation woody crops? ( Grow on Agricultural lands).


Our forest resource

OUR FOREST RESOURCE


What is the size of the resource

WHAT IS THE SIZE OF THE RESOURCE?

  • Major decline in Mississippi’s natural pine stand acreage

  • By the year 2040 decrease to 2.15 million acres

  • By the year 2040 plantation acreage will be 5.54 million acres – an 88% increase from 1994 level of 2.95 million acres


Area of plantation pine stands in mississippi through 2040

AREA OF PLANTATION PINE STANDS IN MISSISSIPPI THROUGH 2040

USDA, FOREST RESOURCE RPT #24, 1988


Area of pine plantations by ownership in the state of mississippi through 2030

7%

2%

National Forest

Other Public

44%

Forest Industry

Non-industrial Private

47%

AREA OF PINE PLANTATIONS BY OWNERSHIP IN THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI THROUGH 2030

ROSSON, 2001


Timber removals of plantation pine in mississippi through 2030

TIMBER REMOVALS OF PLANTATION PINE IN MISSISSIPPI THROUGH 2030


Forest growth and increase in demand for forest products

FOREST GROWTH AND INCREASE IN DEMAND FOR FOREST PRODUCTS

  • Current trends in the demand and supply of forest products could increase the potential contribution of forest biomass by

    89 MM tons /pa

  • The rate of increase in primary and secondary forest biomass will be tempered by product substitution, recycling and reuse and improved manufacturing efficiencies


Healthy forest restoration act hfra 2003

HEALTHY FOREST RESTORATION ACT ( HFRA) 2003

  • Removal of forest fuel.

  • This will include pre-commercial thinnings

  • Most of this biomass would come from privately held lands


Biomass utilization the south s industry of the future

CURRENT IMPACTS ON

FOREST PRODUCTS

CONSUMPTION

  • Intensive management of Plantation forests is

    widely practiced in the Southern States of the USA resulting in a significant amount of thinnings

    destined for pulp mills as pulpwood

  • US pulpwood consumption has decreased in the

    South since the 1990’s

    Decrease can be attributed to higher costs:

    • Changing paper demand

    • High labor costs

    • High fiber costs

    • High tax rates


Utilization of forest resources

UTILIZATION OF FOREST RESOURCES

  • What will happen to the significant volumes

    of pulpwood which are increasing daily in the

    Southern States?

  • What will happen to the significant volumes

    of merchantable stems which will become

    available over the next 10 years?

  • How could forest residues be utilized more effectively for bioenergy and products?


A biomass industry for the southern states

A BIOMASS INDUSTRY FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES

The Southern States of the USA needs a

Biomass – Based Industry

  • New industry would create high-volume , non-cyclical markets for biomass (trees, forest thinning, logging residue, under-story vegetation, mill residue ).

  • New jobs will be created , lost jobs restored and existing jobs retained

  • 214 million acres of forestland in the 13 southeastern states.

  • Nation has 338 million acres of farmland, of which 128 million are in the southeast


Biomass utilization the south s industry of the future

Feedstocks - Conversion-Uses

  • USES

  • Fuels:

  • Ethanol

  • Renewable Diesel

  • Power:

  • Electricity

  • Heat

  • Chemicals

  • Plastics

  • Solvents

  • Adhesives

  • Acetic Acid

  • Carbon black

  • Paints

  • Dyes, Pigments, and Ink

  • Detergents

  • Food and Feed

Biomass

Feedstock

Conversion

Processes

- Enzymatic Fermentation

- Gas/liquid Fermentation

- Hydrolysis to Oil

- Gasification

- Combustion

- Co-firing

Trees

Agricultural Crops

Forest residues


Energy and products from wood

ENERGY AND PRODUCTS FROM WOOD

  • Consider the future for production of energy and high value chemicals from wood

  • The South is rich in lignocellulosic material

  • Wood material can come from wood waste and also forest thinnings

  • Wood could be specifically grown for conversion to energy and chemicals

  • The future for energy and high value chemical products is with lignocellulosic products


Energy and products from wood1

ENERGY AND PRODUCTS FROM WOOD

  • UTILISING WOODY MATERIAL THAT OTHERWISE WOULD BE BURNT TO WASTE OR LANDFILLED

  • HIGH TEMPERATURE AND NO OXYGEN TURN THE WOOD INTO BIOOIL

    WOOD (waste or chipped thinnings)

    BIOOIL

WASTE FOR BURNING AS FUEL

HIGH VALUE ADD CHEMICALS e.g. flavorings, building blocks for adhesives,

wood protection chemicals


Biooil production

BIOOIL PRODUCTION


Biooil from flash pyrolysis

BIOOIL FROM FLASH PYROLYSIS

  • Biooil can be burned directly in engines or mixed with diesel oil

  • Need to solve technical issues – acidity, immiscibility and viscosity

  • ROI technology, 30% of the capital required by competitors

  • Competitive with #2 Fuel oil


Bioreactor for producing chemical products from wood

BIOREACTOR FOR PRODUCING CHEMICAL PRODUCTS FROM WOOD


Advantages of roi pyrolysis equipment

ADVANTAGES OF ROI PYROLYSIS EQUIPMENT

  • Small, modular and transportable

  • Mobility reduces transportation costs.

  • Woody biomass for fuel study in New Hampshire - $16/wet ton to cut, skid, chip and truck low grade wood chips. Owners - $0.50 to $1.50/ton stumpage

  • Reduction of harvesting costs. Alternative harvesting systems for 10 – 12 year old timber thinnings


Chemicals from biomass

CHEMICALS FROM BIOMASS


What next for biomass utilization

WHAT NEXT FOR BIOMASS UTILIZATION?

  • US DOE and USDA committed to expanding role of biomass as a source of energy and chemicals

  • View this as a way to support new industries in the form of biorefineries manufacturing fuels, chemicals and other products

  • Additional work is required to develop appropriate conversion technologies and to determine the impact of Forest Biomass Utilization on traditional Forest Products markets


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