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VSEPR : Electrons around an atom repel each other, and will move apart as far as possible to have space. The furthest away electrons can get in Carbon’s 4 bonds is 109.5 o apart. 109.5°. The bond angles of carbon are 109.5°.

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VSEPR:

Electrons around an atom repeleach other, and will move apart as far as possible to have space.

The furthest away electrons can get in

Carbon’s 4 bonds is 109.5o apart.

109.5°

The bond angles of carbon are 109.5°.


Carbon atoms in alkanes can rotate (twist) freely around each other.

Multiplebonds restrict twisting or rotating.


  • Cis/Trans isomers

  • Same formula - different arrangement of branches around the double bond.

  • “cis” or “trans” shows different arrangement.

  • Sometimes called - Geometric isomers

2-butene


Cis/Transis possible only when each carbonin the double bondhasa ‘bigger’ end between its other bonds.

NOT every alkene has a cis or trans configuration.

2-butene


cis - largest alkyl groups on the same side of the double bond.

cis-2-butene


trans - largest alkyl groups on opposite sides.

trans-2-butene


2

1

3

4

2-methyl-1-butene

DOESN’T have a bigger end on each carbon on the double bond – NO cis/trans


5

1

4

3

2

cis-

3-methyl-2-pentene


Draw trans-4-octene:

C - C - C

C - C - C

H

6 7 8

C = C

H

4

5

C - C - C

1 2 3


cis

Draw -4-ethyl-3-methyl-3-heptene:

1

2

C - C - C

C -

C

5 6 7

C = C

C - C

3

4

C


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