Cells Are Cool!!
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Cells Are Cool!!. http://benchlandblog.com/2010/02/some-pollen-with-your-red-wine/. So what makes something alive?. What are the characteristics of being alive? They are... Collect energy for immediate or later use Takes in oxygen from the aim or water in which it lives in Produces waste

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Cells Are Cool!!

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Cells are cool

Cells Are Cool!!


So what makes something alive

So what makes something alive?

What are the characteristics of being alive? They are...

  • Collect energy for immediate or later use

  • Takes in oxygen from the aim or water in which it lives in

  • Produces waste

  • Responds to stimuli in the environment

  • Has the ability to move

  • Have the ability to reproduce

  • Grow

  • Are made up of cells

Cells are cool

Different Types of Living Things

  • You may or may not know this, but there are two main different types of organisms.

  • One type is autotrophswhich produce their own food, and are commonly referred to as plants. This type of living organism produces energy directly from the sun through photosynthesis. Even though it produces it’s own food, it still requires other living organisms to complete tasks for it that it cant do itself (like pollination).

  • Another type of living organism is a heterotroph, which is commonly referred to as an animal. These living organisms cannot produce their own food, and must get it from an autotroph (plant) or another heterotroph (animal). Most heterotrophs are warm blooded, but some are not like snakes and lizards.

Plants produce energy through using the energy of the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen (photosynthesis)

Heterotrophs cannot produce their own food

Living things use oxygen

Living Things Use Oxygen

  • You may know this, but almost all living animals require Oxygen for respiration. It’s by product is Carbon Dioxide.

  • Plants require Carbon Dioxide for respiration. It’s by product is Oxygen

  • Because of this, both plants and animals rely on one another to live. This is because plants give off the oxygen we need to live, and animals give off the Carbon Dioxide plants need to live

Plants convert Carbon Dioxide into Oxygen

Animals convert Oxygen to Carbon Dioxide

Producing waste responding to stimuli

Producing Waste & Responding to Stimuli

  • All living things produce some type of waste. Many animals produce urea and faecal matter. This waste is then commonly used by other living organisms (like manure for plants). Also, Carbon Dioxide is a waste produce for animals and Oxygen is a waste product .

  • All living things respond to stimuli (even plants). If we hear a sudden loud noise, we may jump suddenly. Your also now responding to stimuli by putting up your hands.

  • Plants also respond to stimuli but it may not be as noticeable. For example, flowers open when there is sunlight but close when the sun sets.

All different living organisms respond to stimuli in a different way. For example, a cat might see a bird and think lunch. It may also see something else and be scared.

Living things move reproduce

Living Things Move & Reproduce

  • Even though some students at the moment are moving as much as active as a corpse, they are still moving in some way. The same is true for all other living organisms. Animals move when they need to, while plants also move when required. For example, flowers opens and closes depending on the sun.

  • All living things need to also reproduce. If they cannot reproduce, they will end up dying as their cells ware out. Most living things reproduce through mitosis, such as your skin, hair, bark, leaves etc.

  • Some living things produce through meiosis (called sexual reproduction – stop laughing). This is when information from different living organisms come together.

Flowers move when the sun shines by opening

Most living things reproduce through mitosis or meiosis

Living things grow are made of cells

Living Things Grow & Are Made of Cells

  • All living things grow in some form or another. Animals get larger as they get older, and trees grow taller as they get older as well.

  • If a living organism does not grow, then it is destined to die. Even animals that are not getting larger continue to grow in some way. For example, as specific cells in your body die, they continue to grow new cells. Did you also know that you nose and ears continue to grow as you get older!!

  • Also, all living organisms are made out of cells. Some living organisms are made out of just one cell (eg bacteria), but some living organisms are made out of billions of cells (eg humans).

Different cells

Different Cells

  • There are two main types of cells found on earth.

  • They are:

    • Animal Cells

    • Plant Cells

    • There are also different types of cells (single cell and multiple cell) which we will learn about later.

Animal cells

Animal Cells

  • Animal cells are different than plant cells. They have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondrion and a nucleus.

  • The shape of an animal cell varies.

  • The nucleus is in the middle of the cell

Plant cells

Plant Cells

  • Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts, nucleus, cytoplasm, vacuole, cytoplasmic membrane (cyctoplasm) and a mitochondrion.

  • Plants have tough cell walls made out of cellulose.

  • They can have a large hole in the middle filled with sap.

Different types of cells

Different Types of Cells

  • On earth – there are two main types of cells. They are:

    • Prokaryotes (single cell organism): these are single celled organisms. The one cell does everything it needs to live by itself. It can move, get food, reproduce etc.

    • Examples include bacteria and blue-green algae





  • Eukaryotes (multi celled organisms): These cells can be plants or animals. Each cell normally has a specific job that it completes.

  • For example, one type of cell may produce food, one may get rid of waste, one may help it move etc.

  • These cells need each other to live. If they are not together, they will not survive.


Plant cells1

Plant Cells

Different parts

Different Parts

  • Cell Wall – It covers the thin cell membrane. It is made of tough cellulose which strengthens the cell

  • Chloroplasts – They carry out photosynthesis which trap light energy. It makes energy for the cell

  • Cytoplasm – contains starch and is where chemical reactions occur to keep the cell alive

Different parts 2

Different Parts # 2

  • Nucleus – this controls what the cell does. It also contains instructions for making new cells.

  • Vacuole – a large hole filled with liquid called cell sap. It helps keep the shape of the cell.

  • Cell Membrane – is a thin skin around the cell. It controls what comes in and out of the cell.

Animal cell

Animal Cell

Different parts1

Different Parts

  • The cell membrane is a thin outer layer that contains the cell and controls what goes in or comes out.

  • The cytoplasm is a jelly like liquid where the chemical reactions to keep the cell alive occurs

  • The vacuole is a storage area that may contain air, food or waste.

Different parts 21

Different Parts #2

  • Mitochondrion – these can be seen as small energy capsules that contains sugar and oxygen so energy can be released.

  • Cell Nucleus – this controls what the cell does along with contain instructions to make a new cell

Similarities and differences

Similarities and Differences

  • Plant Cells: have tough cellulose cell walls, have chloroplasts, have a large permanent vacuole (hole) containing cell sap, many have a box like shape, have a nucleus on the side of the cell.

  • Animal Cells: do not have cellulose cell walls, do not have chloroplasts, sometimes have small vacuoles but they never contain cell sap, shape varies (is different), have a nucleus in the middle of the cell.






  • A microscope will magnify or make things look bigger.

  • There are 4 main magnifications on our microscope. They are:

    • X4 Magnification (small one)

    • X10 Magnification (medium one)

    • X40 Magnification (large one)

Making focus

Making Focus

  • With a microscope, you need to focus the image so you can see things.

  • This can be done by moving a large round knob towards the back of the microscope. This moves the lens up and down.

  • There is also a smaller knob in the middle which moves the lens a smaller amount

  • WARNING: Make sure you never lower the lens into the glass plate

Choosing good samples

Choosing Good Samples

  • When choosing a sample to look at under a microscope, try and choose something that is small, partially see through and flat.

  • You put the object on a glass plate, then put the lens cover on top of the object.

  • You can also change the amount of light on the microscope.

So what is ecology

So what is Ecology?

  • According to the dictionary, ‘Ecology’ means: the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms.

  • Or to put it simple, how all living things (plants, animals, bacteria etc) interact and live with each other.



  • When Scientists talk about an ecosystem, they are referring to the living organisms that live in a specific area, how they affect each other, and how they are affected by the non-living environment around them.

Ecosystems 2

Ecosystems #2

  • When looking at an organisms home, there are a couple of things we detail to be a bit more specific. We need to name the following: Biosphere, Biogeographical Region, Biome, Habitat, Microhabitat & Name of Organism.

Differences in plants

Differences in Plants

  • A living organism is normally classified as a plant if it produces it’s own food.

  • This food is normally created by photosynthesis, in which Carbon Dioxide, Water and Sunlight makes Oxygen and Glucose (sugar).

  • However, plants reproduce in different ways!!



  • One of the main types of plants are called Gymnosperms.

  • They reproduce by producing cones (like pine cones).

  • The cones give off spores from the male pine cone. The spores are also known as pollen (or sperm)

  • The breeze or wind then carries the spores to the female pine cone.

  • Now the spores can fertilize the ovule or egg. It’s not called a seed until it’s fertilized.

Male pine cone

Female pine cone




  • Angiosperms reproduce through flowers.

  • Unlike Gymnosperms which have separate male and female cones, flowers contain both the male and female reproductive systems.

  • The male reproductive system is called the Stamen which contains pollen (or sperm).

  • The female reproductive system is called the Pistil and includes the ovule (or egg)



  • The pollen (or sperm) of a flower will travel down the Stigma and Style to pollenate the ovule or egg.

  • Once the egg is fertilized, it will become a seed.

  • Some seeds will also grow in fruit so that animals will eat the fruit and disperse or move the seed away from the plant.

More on flowers

More on Flowers

  • To stop the same flower from pollenating themselves, there are some things the different plants do. For example,

    • The pollen and ovule or egg may be ready at different times

    • Some ovules or eggs will not accept pollen from the same plant.


A closer look at flowers

A Closer Look At Flowers

  • Here are some interesting but important facts about flowers:

    • All fruits and nuts come from flowers.

    • Flowers are often bright or have a specific smell to attract animals or insects to take their pollen for fertilization.

    • Many flowers will specialize which means that only one type of insect or animal can pollenate the flower.

Seed dispersal

Seed Dispersal

  • Seeds are made once once pollen (sperm) comes into contact with the ovary (egg) and forms a seed.

  • Once the seed is made, it can be dispersed three different ways:

  • 1. Fall to the ground

  • Use the wind to move it around

  • Produce fruit so that animals eat it and move the seeds to a new location.

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