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Researching, Organizing, and Outlining Your Speech. Characteristics of a Formal Outline. Outline is written in complete sentences Outline includes all important and relevant information Outline is typed Outline includes citations within text

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characteristics of a formal outline
Characteristics of a Formal Outline
  • Outline is written in complete sentences
  • Outline includes all important and relevant information
  • Outline is typed
  • Outline includes citations within text
  • Outline includes two-five (2-5) main points (I, II, III…)
  • Outline includes supporting information as sub points (A, B, C…) Each main point must contain a minimum of two supporting details.
  • If needed, outline includes elaborated information as sub sub-points (1, 2, 3…)
organizing the body of your speech
Organizing the body of your speech
  • Identify 2-5 main points (central ideas you want to present to your audience)
  • Consider organizational pattern of main points
  • Write a thesis statement with main points
  • Develop the main points of your speech through research
  • Outline the speech body
organizational patterns of a speech page 282
Organizational Patterns of a Speech (page 282)
  • Topical / Logical pattern (based on types or categories)
    • The Division of College Students: Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior
    • Diabetes: What is Diabetes, What Causes Diabetes, What are Symptoms of Diabetes, What are Treatments of Diabetes
  • Chronological pattern (based on how things occur in time)
    • Oprah: Oprah’s Childhood, Oprah’s rise to success, Oprah’s future ambitions
  • Spatial pattern (based on where things are located in space)
    • Places to visit in Alabama: Huntsville, Birmingham, Tuscaloosa, Montgomery, Mobile
  • Compare & Contrast (Informative or Persuasive)
    • Shelton vs UA, Wedding Rituals: India vs UA
organizational patterns of a speech
Organizational Patterns of a speech
  • Cause & Effect pattern
    • Binge Drinking: The effects of binge drinking on a college campus, the causes of binge drinking on a college campus OR discuss 2-5 causes OR discuss 2-5 effects
  • Problem & Solution
    • Overcrowded Prisons: The problem of overcrowded prisons, the solution to overcrowded prisons OR the problem of overcrowded prisons, why this has become a problem, the solution to overcrowded prisons
don t forget
Don’t Forget……
  • Make sure you use transitions to create a parallel structure (flow between main points and sub points)….
  • Transitions – words, phrases, or sentences that show a relationship between, or bridge, two ideas
supporting materials page 268
Supporting Materials (page 268)
  • Supporting materials are used to clarify an idea, make an idea interesting, make an idea memorable, or prove an idea
  • Types of Supporting Materials
    • Facts
    • Statistics
    • Examples
    • Expert opinions
    • Stories /Anecdotes
    • Analogies
    • Quotations / Testimonies
    • Definitions
locating supporting materials page 263
Locating Supporting Materials (page 263)
  • Books
  • Professional Journals
  • Newspapers
  • Reference Works (Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Almanac, etc)
  • Internet-based sources (Websites)
  • Magazines
  • Non-print Materials (Audio, Audiovisual, etc)
  • Personal Interviews
locating good supporting materials page 265
Locating GOOD supporting materials (page 265)
  • Authority / Credibility: Anyone can establish a website. Evaluate!
  • Objectivity: Is the information bias? Is it an advertisement?
  • Currency: When was this information produced? Is it updated?

Citing Sources:(include this in oral & written citations)

  • Title of Article
  • Title of Publication
  • Author of Article
  • Date of Article
  • Website (name of organization, institution, etc.)
  • Webpage
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