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Chapter 6 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 6. Osseous Tissue & Bone Structure. Objectives. Describe the primary functions to the skeletal system Classify bones according to shape and internal organization

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Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

Osseous Tissue

&

Bone Structure


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Objectives

  • Describe the primary functions to the skeletal system

  • Classify bones according to shape and internal organization

  • Be able to give examples of each type, and explain the functional significance of each of the major type of bone markings

  • Identify cell types in bone, and list their major functions.

  • Compare the structures and functions of compact bone and spongy bone

  • Describe the remodeling and homeostatic mechansims of the skeletal system

  • Explain the role of calcium as it relates to the skeletal system


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Introduction to the Skeletal System

  • Functions

    - _____________

    - _____________ of Minerals and Lipids

    - Blood Cell _______________

    - _____________

    - Leverage


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Bone Classifications

- a bone may be classified by its general __________ or by its internal tissue organization.

  • Shapes

  • typical adult skeleton contains 206 major bones

    - divided into ________ broad categories according to their individual shapes

    _________ Bones:

    - relatively ________ and ____________

    - located in the ________, forearms, __________, leg, ____________, soles, ____________, and toes


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Bone Classification Cont.

___________ Bones:

- have ___________ roughly ____________ surfaces

- provide ______________ for underlying soft tissues

- offer an extensive surface area for attachment of skeletal muscles

ex.

______________ Bones:

- small, _______, __________________ shaped bones

- vary in _________, shape, __________, and position

- located between the _________ bones of the skull


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Bone Classification Cont.

Irregular:

- have complex shapes with short, _______, notched, or ridged surfaces

ex.

____________ Bones:

- _________ and boxy

ex.

____________ Bones:

- general small, flat, and shaped somewhat like a sesame seed

- develop inside ________, most commonly located near joints at the knees, hands, and feet

- individuals vary in the location and abundance (form in at least 26 locations)


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Bone Classification Cont.


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Bone Markings/Surface Features

  • external and internal ___________________

    - ______________ or ______________ form where tendons and ligaments attach

    - _____________, ______________, and ____________ in bone indicate cites where blood vessels or nerves lie alongside/penetrate bone

    Uses

    - determine __________, _________, sex and general appearance


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Anatomical Terms: Bone Surfaces

Elevations and Projections

- ___________: projection or bump

- Ramus: __________ of a bone making an angle with the rest of the structure

Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

- ______________: large, rough projection

- Tuberosity: smaller, _______________ projection

- Tubercle: small, rounded projection

- _____________: prominent ridge

- Line: low ___________

- __________: pointed or narrow process


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Anatomical Terms: Bone Surfaces

Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones

- _________: expanded articular end of an epiphysis, separated from the shaft by a neck

- Neck: narrow connection between the _____________ and the _____________

- ___________: smooth, rounded articular process

- Trochlea: smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley

- Facet: small, flat articular surface

Depressions:

- Fossa: shallow _____________

- Sulcus: narrow groove


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Anatomical Terms: Bone Surfaces

Openings

- Foramen: rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves

- Canal: passageway through the substance of a bone

- Fissure: elongated cleft

- Sinus: chamber within a bone, normally filled with air


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Bone Structure (marco)

  • Diaphysis: _________, makes up up of the bone’s length

    - wall consists of a layer of __________ bone (dense bone)

    - relatively solid, forms a sturdy protective layer that surrounds a central space, _______________ cavity

    - covered and protected by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called the _______________, attached to bone by ____________ fibers

  • Epiphysis: at each _________ of the long bone

    - thin layer of compact bone composed largely of _____________ bone

    - open network of struts and plates, like a lattice

    - glassy hyaline cartilage known as an ____________ cartilage covers external surface providing a slippery surface that decreases friction

    - ___________ line : remnant of epiphyseal plate when growth occurs


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Bone Structure Cont.

  • _______________: narrow zone connecting the epiphysis and diaphysis

  • Medullary cavity: central space in bone primarily a __________ area for adipose tissue

    - in infants formation of blood cells and red marrow occurs here


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Structure of Compact Bone

  • ____________ (Haversian system)

    - basic unit of mature compact bone

    - _______________ are arranged in concentric layers around a central canal

    - canal contain blood vessels that carry blood to and from the osteon

    - central canals generally ___________ to the surface of the bone

    - perforating canals extend _____________ to the surface

    - ____________ of each osteon form a series of nestled cylinders around the central canal (target/bullseye)

    - _____________ radiating through the lamellae interconnect the lacunae with one another and the central canal


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Structure of Spongy Bone

  • Matrix

    - forms struts and plates called ______________

    - branch to create an _____________ network

    - no capillaries or venules

    - nutrients reach the osteocytes by _____________ along the canaliculi

  • Characteristics

    - ____________ than compact bone

    - able to withstand stress from multiple directions

  • Locations

    - _________ bones (carpal of wrist)

    - inner layer of _________ bones

    - sesamoid


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Bone Composition

  • Specialized cells

    ex.

  • Matrix consisting of extracellular protein fibers and ground substance

    - very dense and contains _____________ deposits

    - bone cells (ostecytes) inside of lacunae

    - canaliculi


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Cells of the Bone

  • 4 types of cells

    - ______________

    - ______________

    - ______________

    - ______________


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Cells of Bone Cont.

  • Osteocytes

    - ______________ bone cells, cannot divide

    - most abundant

    - occupies a ___________ (tiny cavities) arranged in concentric circles called lamellae around central (Haversian) canals

    - a central canal, and matrix rings is called an ___________ or Haversian system

    - lamellae are penetrated by _________________ (narrow passageways) radiating through matrix connecting lacunae and sources of nutrients, such as a central canal

    • Functions:

      - ____________ the protein and mineral content of the surrounding matrix

      - participate in the _____________ of damaged bone


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Cells of Bone Cont.

  • Osteoblasts

    - produce new bone matrix by _______________

    - __________ and ___________ proteins and other organic components of the matrix before calcium salts are deposits

    - assist in elevating local concentrations of calcium phosphate above its solubility limit triggering the deposition of calcium salts in the organic matrix converting matrix to bone

    - become ______________ once completely surrounded by bone matrix


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Cells of Bone Cont.

  • Osteoprogenitor

    - small numbers of _______________ cells

    - squamous stem cells that divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts

    - maintain populations of ________________

    - important in the role of _______________

    - located in the ______________


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Cells of Bone Cont.

  • Osteoclasts

    - giant cells with more than 50 nuclei

    - ___________ and _____________ bone matrix by secreting enzymes that dissolve and release stored minerals (osteolysis)


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Bone Formation, Growth

  • Two Ways

    • ______________________ bones originate between sheetlike layers of connective tissues

      ex.

    • _______________ bones begin as masses of cartilage that are later replaced by bone tissue

      ex.


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Intramembranous Bones

  • broad, flat bones of the skull

  • membranelike layers of unspecialized, or relatively undifferentiated, connective tissue appear at sites of the future bones

  • some of the partially differentiated ____________ cells enlarge and further differentiate into bone-forming cells, ____________

  • osteoblasts ___________ bony matrix around themselves

  • as a result _________ bone tissue forms in all directions with the layers of connective tissue

  • when extracellular matrix completely surrounds osteoblasts, they become __________

  • formation of bone is known as _____________


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Endochondral Bones

  • most all bones of the skeleton

  • develop in the fetus from masses of ___________ ____________

    - in long bones, change occurs from center of ____________

    - _____________ slowly breaks down and disappears

    - a ___________ forms from connective tissue that encircles the developing diaphysis

    - blood vessels and osteoblasts from periosteum invade the disintegrating cartilage, and spongy bone forms in its place

    - this region is called the _______________________

    - bone growth occurs from it towards the ends of the cartilaginous structure

    - osteoblasts from the periosteum deposit a thin layer of compact bone around the primary ossification center


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Endochondral Bones Cont.

- epiphyses remain cartilaginous and continue to grow

- secondary ossification centers appears, epiphyses fill with ______________ bone, except at the center where calcification occurs

- a band of cartilage remains between the two ossification sites, called the _____________ _____________


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Bone growth in Length Cont.

- cartilagenous tissue of the epiphyseal plate includes layers of young cells that are undergoing mitosis and producing new cells

- cells enlarge, and extracellular matrix form around them, thickening the cartilagenous plate, and lengthening the bone

- calcium salts accumulate in the extracellular matrix adjacent to the oldest cartilaginous cells, and as the matrix calcifies the cells begin to die

- _________ remove matrix as _________ deposit new bone

- epiphyses remain throughout life as __________ ________

- growth ends when the two ___________ _________ meet

- at puberty rising levels of sex, growth, and thyroid hormones stimulate bone growth; osteoblasts produce bone faster than chondrocytes at producing new cartilage


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Appostional Growth

Appositional Bone growth (________________)

- ___________ in periosteum add bone tissue to the ___________ face of the _______________

- ____________ in the endosteum remove bone from the ______ face of the ____________ wall

- forms the a space resulting in a __________ ____________ which later fills with ___________


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Bone Remodeling

  • Remodeling

    - components of bone continuously recycle and renew occurring throughout life

    - older minerals deposits are removed from bone and released in to the circulation at the same time that circulating minerals are being absorbed and deposited

    - “game” between osetocytes, blasts, and clasts

    - osteocyts create ________, at the same rate osteoclasts remove one by ______________

    - _______ of the adult skeleton is replaced every year

    - femur spongy bone replaced 2-3 times a year


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Factors Affecting Bone Growth, Remodel & Repair

  • Nutrition

    ex.

  • ____________

    ex.

  • Physical Exercise

    ex.

  • ____________

    ex.


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Bone Fractures

  • General Categories

    - _________ (simple)

    - _________ (compound)

  • Closed

    - completely ______________

    - no break of the skin, so they can only be seen in x-rays

    - usually easy to treat

  • Open

    - project through the ___________

    - more dangerous due to possibility of infection


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Types of fractures

  • Pott

    - occurs at the ___________ and affects both bones of the leg

  • Comminuted

    - ____________ bone into multiple fragments

  • _______________

    - break bone shaft across its axis

  • Spiral

    - ____________ up/down the length of the bone

  • Displaced/Nondisplaced

    - produce new and abnormal bone arrangements

    - retain normal ______________


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Type of Fractures

  • Colles

    - break in the distal portion of the radius

  • Greenstick

    - only one side of the shaft is ____________, and the other is bent

  • Epiphyseal

    - occur where bone matrix is undergoing calcification

    - can permanently stop growth

  • Compression

    - occur in the ____________

  • Avulsion

    - tendon or ligament is injured in such a manner that it pulls off a piece of ________


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Fractures


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Repair of a Fracture

  • Step 1

    - blood vessel rupture, ____________ tears (usually)

    - blood escapes spreading through damaged area leading to a ___________ or large blood clot

    - vessels in surrounding tissue __________, swelling and inflaming tissue

  • Step2

    - ___________ and new blood vessels from the periosteum invade the hematoma, create __________ bone

  • Step 3

    - __________ fills in the gaps of broken bone, called a _______________ ________ (later be replaced by bone tissue very similar to endochondral bone)

  • Step 4

    - ___________ appear and reabsorb fragments or dead bone is removed

    - ___________ cells begin to remove blood clot and damaged cells


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Skeleton

  • 2 parts

    - ___________

    - _____________

  • Appendicular

    - forms the longitudinal axis of the body

    - ________ bones

    - 40% of the bones in human body

    - Includes

    - ________________ & _______________

    - _______________ column

    - ________________ ____________

    • provide framework that supports and protects the brain, spinal cord, and organs in the ventral cavities

    • extensive surface areas for attachment of muscles

    • joints have limited movement


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Skull

- composed of the cranium, and facial bones

- encloses the cranial cavity, a ___________ filled _____________ that cushions and supports the brain

- occipital, parietal, and frontal bones form the _____________

- blood vessels, nerves, and membranes that stabilize the position of the brain are attached to the inner surface of the cranium

- outer surface provides areas of attachment for muscles of the eyes, jaws, and head

- joint between occipital bone and 1st vertebrae of neck stabilize the positions of the brain and spinal cord


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Skull Cont.

  • Contains 22 bones

    - __ form the cranium

    - __________- ethmoid- ___________

    - frontal - _________ - temporal (2)

    - 14 facial

    - maxilla (2) - ___________- palatine (2)

    - _________ - nasal (2) - ___________

    - vomer- inferior nasal concha (2)


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Skull (Facial)

- superficial bones

-

- provide areas for the attachment of muscles that control facial features and assist in the manipulating of food

- deep bones

-

- separate the __________ and __________ cavities

- increase surface area of cavities

- help form the nasal septum which divides the ____________ _____________


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Skull Cont.

  • Sinuses

    - ______________ chambers

    - two major functions

    - make bone ______________

    - mucous membrane lining produces mucus that moistens and cleans air

  • Joints or Articulations

    - form where two bones ________________

    - exception between mandible and cranium contact

    - sutures are located between ______________ joints of the skull bones in adults

    - bones are tied together via dense fibrous connective tissue

    - ___ major sutures


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Skull Cont.

  • ________________

    - arches across the posterior surface of the skull

    - seperates the occipital bone from the two parietal bones

  • Coronal

    - attaches the ___________ bone to the _________ bones of either side

  • _______________

    - extends from lambdoid suture to the coronal suture, between the parietal bones

  • Squamous

    - one each side of the skull forms the boundary between the ____________ bone and the ______________ bone of that side


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Orbital Complexes

  • __________ bones and ___________ bones which surrounds each eye, and the nasal complex surrounding the cavities

  • protect and support openings of the digestive and respiratory systems and sense organs responsible for vision and smell

  • Orbits

    - __________ recesses that contain the eyes

    - each orbit is formed by ___ bones of the orbital complex


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Nasal Complexes

  • bones that enclose the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses

  • Paranasal Sinuses

    - sphenoid- ethmoid- frontal bone- maxillia- palantine bone

    - lighten the skull bones and provide an extensive area of ____________ epithelium

    - as mucous secretions are released ciliated epithelium pass it back toward the throat to be swallowed or expelled by coughing

    - incoming air is _______________ and warmed

    - foreign particles are trapped swallowed or expelled by coughing


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Fontanelles

- fibrous membranes connecting cranial bones

  • _________ fontanelle (exists about 2 years after birth)

    - largest

    - located at the intersection of the frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures in the anterior portion of the skull

    - often referred to as the “soft spot”

  • Occiptial fontanelle (disappear 1-2 months after birth)

    - junction between the lambdoid and ___________ sutures

  • ____________ fontanelles

    - junctions between the squamous and coronal sutures

  • Mastoid fontanelles (disappear 1-2 months after birth)

    - junctions between the ____________ and lambdoid suture


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Vertebral Column

  • consists of ____ bones

    - vertebrae (___) – _________- __________

  • provides a column of support

  • bears the weight of the head, neck, and trunk

  • protects the ____________ __________

  • helps maintain an upright body position

  • averages 71 cm or 28 in in adults

  • several __________


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Spinal Curvature

  • ___ curves

    • ____________

      - neck

    • ____________

      - upper back

    • ____________

      - lower back

    • ____________

      - gluteal reigon


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Vertebral Anatomy

  • 3 basic parts

    - vertebral ___________

    - vertebral ___________

    - ____________ process

  • Vertebral Body

    - transfers _______ along the axis of the vertebral column

    - interconnected by ____________

    - separated by fibrous cartilage (_______________ discs)

  • Vertebral Arch

    - forms the posterior margin of each vertebral _________

    - ____________ (walls) arise along the posterior and lateral margins of body

    - roof called ___________, extend dorsally and medially

    - successive vertebrae form the vertebral __________, enclosing spinal cord


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Vertebral Anatomy Cont.

- intervertebral discs separate adjacent vertebral bodies

- intervertibral __________ (gaps) separate successive pedicles, permitting passage of ___________

- ___________ process projects ____________ where vertebral laminae fuse to complete arch

(feel through skin when back is flexed)

- _____________ processes project ___________ on both sides where laminae join pedicles

- sites for muscle attachments

- some articulate with ribs

  • Articular processes

    - arise at the junction between the pedicles and the laminae

    - superior articulate with inferior on each side

    - each articulation has a smooth concave surface called an articular ___________


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Vertebral Regions

  • Cervical

    - _______, create the neck

    - extend from ____________ bone to the thorax

    - _________ of the vertebral column

    - small body compared to foramen

    - support only the _________________ of the head

  • General Characteristics __________

    - superior surface of body is ___________ side to side

    - slopes with the anterior edge inferior to posterior edge

    - stumpy spinous process, __________ than the diameter of foramen, with prominent __________ (bifid)

    - laterally transverse processes are fused to ____________ processes

    - encircle round transverse ______________

    - provide more flexibility than other regions


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Vertebral Regions Cont.

  • Atlas: __(after Atlas who holds the world on his shoulders)

    - holds up the ________

    - articulates superiorly with occipital _________, allowing us to nod yes

    - articulates with the ____, allowing us rotation for no

    - no ___________ ____________

    - ________, _______ vertebral foramen bounded by anterior and posterior arches

  • Axis: ___

    - during development fuses with atlas creating the prominent ________ (adontoid)

    - a __________ ligament binds the dens to the inner surface of the atlas

    - strong spinous process for muscle attachment

    - incomplete in children


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Vertebral Regions Cont.

  • Vertebra Prominens (__)

    - has a _______, ___________ spinous process

    - ends in a broad ____________ (you can feel this)

    - ____________ process are large, for muscle processes

    - beginning of the ______________ _________

    - extends to an insertion along the occipital crest

    - attaches to the spinous processes of other cervical vertebrae

    - acts like a string on a bow


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Vertebral Regions Cont.

  • Thoracic

    - ___ vertebrae

  • General Characteristics

    - _________ shaped body more massive than cervical

    - smaller ____________ than cervical

    - long, slender _________ processes projecting posterior and inferiorly

    - T10-12 increasingly resemble lumbar region

    - compression injuries often occur here

    - articulate with ribs along dorsolateral surfaces of body

    - costal facets on bodies articulate with heads of ribs

    - transverse process T1-10 ,thick, contain transverse costal facets for ribs


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Vertebral Regions Cont.

  • Sacrum- fused components of five sacral vertebrae, marked by ____________ ____________

    - begin fusing after puberty end between 25-30yrs old

    - protect the reproductive, digestive and urinary organs

    - superior _____________ ___________ of the first sacral vertebrae articulate with the last lumber vertebrae

    - attaches the ________ skeleton to the _______ ________ of the ______________ skeleton

    - sacrum is ___________, convex posterior surface

    - sacral canal: __________ that begins between the articular processes and extends the length of the sacrum

    - nerves & membranes from spinal cord enter canal

    - fused spinous processes form a ridge, __________ ____________ ___________

    - _________ at the 5th vertebrae do not contact one another at the midline forming the sacral __________


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Vertebral Regions Cont.

- sacral __________: opening at the inferior end of canal

- sacral foramina: _________ on each side of the median sacral crest (__ pairs)

- ________ transverse processes create __________ __________ ____________

- site of muscle attachments

- sacrum is curved (degree varies with sex and individual)

- auricular surface: thick flattened area lateral and anterior to the superior portion of the lateral sacral crest

- site of articulation with the ___________ ________

- sacral ____________: roughened area between the lateral sacral crest and the auricular surface

- ________: narrow, inferior portion

- ________: broad superior surface

- sacral ________, prominent bulge at anterior tip of base

- sacral ______: wings


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Vertebral Regions Cont.

  • Coccyx

    - consist of _____ _________ vertebrae

    - begin fusing around 25 but do not fuse completely until late adulthood

    - provided attachment sites for ligaments and bone

    -1st and 2nd have vertebrae have __________ ___________ and unfused __________

    - prominent laminae of the 1st coccygeal vertebrae are known as the coccygeal ________, curve to meet with sacral _________


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Vertebral Regions Cont.

  • Coccyx

    - consist of ___ coccygeal vertebrae

    - begin fusing around 25 but do not fuse completely until late adulthood

    - provided attachment sites for ligaments and bone

    -1st and 2nd vertebrae have ______________ __________and __________ arches

    - prominent __________ of the 1st coccygeal vertebrae are known as the coccygeal ________, curve to meet with sacral cornua


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Thoracic Cage

- includes thoracic ____________, ______, and ________

- ribs and sternum form _______ _______

- protects heart, lungs thymus and other structures in cavity

- serves at attachment site for muscles

  • Ribs (costae)

    - very _________

    - elongated, curved, flattened bones

    - ____ pairs:

    - 1-7 are _________ ribs; connected to the __________ by costal cartilages

    - increase in _______ from 1-7 and radius of curvature

    - 8-12 are _______ do not attach to sternum directly merge with cartilages of other ribs to attach


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Thoracic Cage

- 11 and 12 are ___________ ribs, no sternum attachment

- __________ attaches to the vertebral column

- ________ dividing the articular surface into __________ and _____________ sections

- short ______ leading to tubercle, inferior portions contains and articular _______ connecting to transverse process of vertebrae

- ________ is the site where curvature of shaft begins towards sternum

- internal rib surface is concave with prominent costal _________ along inferior border for nerves and blood vessels

- superficial surface is convex provides sites for muscle attachments


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Sternum

- flat bone forming anterior midline of the thoracic wall

- ___ components

- _____________

- broad, triangular, _____________ portion

- articulates with ___________ and cartilage of 1st ribs

- contains ___________ ________ (shallow indentation) at clavicle articulations

- ___________

- ________ shaped

- attaches to the inferior portion of ___________ extending inferiorly at midline

- attaches ribs 2-7


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Sternum

- ____________ process

- smallest part of sternum

- attached to inferior surface of body


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Objectives

  • Identify the bones that form the pectoral girdle, their functions, and their superficial features

  • Identify the bones on the upper limbs, their functions, and their superficial features

  • Identify the bones that form the pelvic girdle, their functions, and their superficial features

  • Identify the bones that form the lower limbs, their functions, and their superficial features.


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Appendicular Skeleton

- include the bones of the limbs and the supporting elements, or girdles, that connect them to the trunk

- allows manipulations of objects and movement

- primarily long bones


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Pectoral Girdle

  • Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle)

    - articulates the arm with the trunk

    - consists of:

    - two ___________

    - two ___________


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Pectoral Girdle Cont.

  • Clavicles

    - _____________ bones that originate at the ___________, __________ border on the manubrium

    - extending from sternal end each clavicle ___________ laterally and posteriorly (about half its length)

    - forms a smooth posterior curve to articulate with a _____________ _________ of the ____________

    - flat, acromial end is __________ than sternal end

    - relatively small and fragile

    - easily fractured and rapidly healed without cast


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Pectoral Girdle Cont.

  • Scapulae

    - anterior surface of the body forms a broad __________

    - 3 _______: _________, medial, and __________

    - 3 _______: superior, _________, and lateral ______

    - lateral angle or ______, forms a broad process that supports the cup-shaped ___________ ___________

    - at glenoid cavity scapula articulates with _________ known as the __________________ ____________

    - anterior surface is relatively smooth and concave

    - contains a depression, called a _____________ ______

    - two large process

    - smaller, anterior projection is the ___________

    - larger, posterior projection is the ___________


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Pectoral Girdle Cont.

- _____________ _________: ridge crossing the posterior surface of body ending at the medial border

- divides the convex posterior surface of the body into two regions

- superior area constitutes the _____________ ___________

- inferior area constitutes the ______________ ___________


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Upper Limbs

- consists of the ___________, ________, ________, ___________, ____________ and ___________

  • Humerus

    - proximal end: round _________

    - articulates with __________

    - _______________ _____________: rounded projection on lateral surface of epiphysis

    - _______________ _____________: smaller projection on anterior, medial surface of the epiphysis

    - separated by the ____________ _________ (sulcus)

    - _____________ neck: lies between the tubercles and articular surface of the head, marks the extent of the joint capsule

    - ___________ neck: metaphysis of bone


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Upper Limbs Cont.

- __________ tuberosity: rough, large elevation on lateral surface of shaft (about halfway along its length)

- __________ _________: depression on posterior surface at end of deltoid tuberosity

- _____________ (medial & lateral): shaft expands near distal articulation on both sides

- condyle: divided into 2 articular regions

- ___________: pulley, spooled shaped medial portion of condyle, extending from the base of cornoid fossa on anterior surface to the olecranon fossa of the posterior surface

- ___________: forms the lateral surface of condyle

- ________ ________: shallow, and superior, allowing for a portion of the radial head


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Upper Limbs Cont.

  • Ulna

    - one of two parallel bones of the forearm

    - in anatomical position, lies most medial

    - shaft is triangular narrows before ending at a disc-shaped ulnar head near wrist

    - lateral surface of head articulates with distal end of radius forming the distal ______________ ________

    - posterior lateral surface bears a __________ ______

    - ____________: superior end (point of the elbow)

    - ___________ notch: anterior surface of the proximal epiphysis articulates with trochlea of humerus at elbow joint

    - olecranon forms upper lip

    - coronoid process forms inferior lip

    - _________ notch: accommodates the head of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint


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Upper Limbs Cont.

  • Radius

    - lateral bone of forearm

    - radial head articulates with capitulum of humerus

    - narrow radial neck extends from radial head to radial tuberosity

    - shaft curves along its length, enlarging distally

    - ____________ notch: medial surface of distal end, articulating with head of ulna

    - ___________ __________: lateral surface helping with stabilization


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Upper Limbs Cont.

  • Carpal Bones

    - 8 bones, forming 2 rows (4 proximal, 4 distal)

    • Proximal

      - _________- ______________

      - _________- ______________

    • Distal

      - ___________- _____________

      - ___________- _____________

      **Sam likes to push the toy car hard** (lateral to medial)


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Upper Limbs Cont.

  • Metacarpals

    - ___ bones usually specified with roman numeral beginning laterally (thumb)

  • Phalanges

    - ___ bones

    - __________ (thumb) has 2

    proximal, distal

    - others have 3

    proximal, medial and distal


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Pelvic Girdle

  • Pelvic Girdle

    - consists of 2 ________ (hips bones)

    - formed by the fusion of 3 bones, _________, ______________, and ___________

    - ___________ __________: joint of fibrous cartilage connecting medial surfaces

    - ___________: concave socket on lateral surface articulating with head of femur

    - ridge forms superior and lateral margins

    - acetabular ________: incomplete inferior portion

    - ________ surface: cup-shaped articular surface

    - ilium, ischium and pubis meet here (pieces of pie)


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Pelvic Girdle Cont.

- _______ forms a broad, curved surface

- articulate with auricle surfaces of sacrum

- landmarks: iliac spines, gluteal lines, greater sciatic notch

- __________ forms posterior, inferior portion

- ischial spine, tuberosity, ramus


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Pelvic Girdle Cont.

  • Pelvis

    - 2 _________, _____________, and the __________

    - divided into a ___________ and ___________

    true: encloses the _____________ _____________

    - superior limit is a line that extends from either side of the base of the sacrum, along the arcuate line and pectineal line to pubic symphysis

    - pelvic _______: bony edge

    - pelvic _______: enclosed space

    false: expanded bladelike portions of each ilium superior to pelvic brim

    - pelvic _______: opening bounded by the coccyx, ischial tuberosities, and inferior border of the pubic symphysis


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Male vs. Female Pelvis

  • Differences

    - Female

    - enlarged pelvic outlet

    - broader pubic angle; greater than 100 degrees

    - less curvature on the sacrum and coccxy

    - wider, more circular pelvic outlet

    - relatively broad pelvis that does not extend as far superiorly

    - ilia that projects farther laterally, but do not extend as far superior to the sacrum


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Lower Limbs

- consists of the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges

  • Femur

    - longest, heaviest bone in the body

    - articulates with coxal (proximal), tibia (distal)

    - femoral __________ articulates with acetabulum

    - a ligament attaches acetabulum to ________ ________ (small pit in the center of the femoral head)

    - _______ joins the shaft at a ~125 degree angle

    - greater trochanter: large, rough projection _________

    - lesser trochanter: projects posteriorly, and __________

    - _______________ line: anteriorly marks edge of articular capsule continuing to the posterior surface as intertrochanteric __________


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Lower Limbs Cont.

- _________ _________: prominent elevation along center posterior surface

- separates as it approaches knee joint into two ridges

- lateral supracondylar ridge

- medial supracondylar ridge

- medial/lateral epicondyles: smooth round projections superior to condyles

- _____________ fossa: deep depression separating condyles posteriorly

- does not reach anterior surface

- ____________ surface: anterior and inferior surfaces separating condyles


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Lower Limbs Cont.

  • Patella

    - cartilaginous at birth, ossifies after walking begins (2-3) ending at puberty

    - large sesamoid bone formed within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris

    - rough, convex anterior surface with broad base

    apex is connect to tibia via ligaments

    - posterior surface contains two concave facets for articulations with the medial/lateral condyles of femur

    - glides superior-inferior only unless unproper tracking develops

    ex.


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Lower Limbs Cont.

  • Tibia

    - large ___________ bone of leg

    - articulate proximally with medial/lateral condyles of femur

    - intercondylar __________: ridge that separates condyles

    - tibial tuberosity: anterior surface, near condyles

    - anterior _____________: ridge that begins at the tibial tuberosity and extends distally along the anterior surface

    - broadens distally, medial border ending in the medial ____________ (projection of ankle), inferior surface articulating with talus


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Lower Limbs Cont.

  • Fibula

    - small lateral bone of the leg

    - ________ articulates anteriorly and inferiorly with the tibial condyle

    - no articulation with femur

    - distal tip or lateral malleolus (fibular process) extends lateral to ankle joint

    - non-weight bearing bone


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Lower Limbs Cont.

  • Tarsals

    - __ bones

    - _______ - _________

    - _______- _________

    - ___________ (medial, intermediate, lateral)


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Lower Limbs Cont.

  • Metatarsals

    - __ bones usually specified with roman numeral beginning medial to lateral across the sole

    - I-III articulate with the three ____________ bones

    - IV-V articulate with the ___________

  • Phalanges

    - ____ bones

    - ______ (great toe) has 2

    proximal, distal

    - others have 3

    proximal, medial and distal


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Arches of the Foot

  • __________________ arch

    - __________________ arch

    -


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