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Chapter 6. Osseous Tissue & Bone Structure. Objectives. Describe the primary functions to the skeletal system Classify bones according to shape and internal organization

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slide1

Chapter 6

Osseous Tissue

&

Bone Structure

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the primary functions to the skeletal system
  • Classify bones according to shape and internal organization
  • Be able to give examples of each type, and explain the functional significance of each of the major type of bone markings
  • Identify cell types in bone, and list their major functions.
  • Compare the structures and functions of compact bone and spongy bone
  • Describe the remodeling and homeostatic mechansims of the skeletal system
  • Explain the role of calcium as it relates to the skeletal system
introduction to the skeletal system
Introduction to the Skeletal System
  • Functions

- _____________

- _____________ of Minerals and Lipids

- Blood Cell _______________

- _____________

- Leverage

bone classifications
Bone Classifications

- a bone may be classified by its general __________ or by its internal tissue organization.

  • Shapes
  • typical adult skeleton contains 206 major bones

- divided into ________ broad categories according to their individual shapes

_________ Bones:

- relatively ________ and ____________

- located in the ________, forearms, __________, leg, ____________, soles, ____________, and toes

bone classification cont
Bone Classification Cont.

___________ Bones:

- have ___________ roughly ____________ surfaces

- provide ______________ for underlying soft tissues

- offer an extensive surface area for attachment of skeletal muscles

ex.

______________ Bones:

- small, _______, __________________ shaped bones

- vary in _________, shape, __________, and position

- located between the _________ bones of the skull

bone classification cont6
Bone Classification Cont.

Irregular:

- have complex shapes with short, _______, notched, or ridged surfaces

ex.

____________ Bones:

- _________ and boxy

ex.

____________ Bones:

- general small, flat, and shaped somewhat like a sesame seed

- develop inside ________, most commonly located near joints at the knees, hands, and feet

- individuals vary in the location and abundance (form in at least 26 locations)

bone markings surface features
Bone Markings/Surface Features
  • external and internal ___________________

- ______________ or ______________ form where tendons and ligaments attach

- _____________, ______________, and ____________ in bone indicate cites where blood vessels or nerves lie alongside/penetrate bone

Uses

- determine __________, _________, sex and general appearance

anatomical terms bone surfaces
Anatomical Terms: Bone Surfaces

Elevations and Projections

- ___________: projection or bump

- Ramus: __________ of a bone making an angle with the rest of the structure

Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

- ______________: large, rough projection

- Tuberosity: smaller, _______________ projection

- Tubercle: small, rounded projection

- _____________: prominent ridge

- Line: low ___________

- __________: pointed or narrow process

anatomical terms bone surfaces10
Anatomical Terms: Bone Surfaces

Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones

- _________: expanded articular end of an epiphysis, separated from the shaft by a neck

- Neck: narrow connection between the _____________ and the _____________

- ___________: smooth, rounded articular process

- Trochlea: smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley

- Facet: small, flat articular surface

Depressions:

- Fossa: shallow _____________

- Sulcus: narrow groove

anatomical terms bone surfaces11
Anatomical Terms: Bone Surfaces

Openings

- Foramen: rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves

- Canal: passageway through the substance of a bone

- Fissure: elongated cleft

- Sinus: chamber within a bone, normally filled with air

bone structure marco
Bone Structure (marco)
  • Diaphysis: _________, makes up up of the bone’s length

- wall consists of a layer of __________ bone (dense bone)

- relatively solid, forms a sturdy protective layer that surrounds a central space, _______________ cavity

- covered and protected by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called the _______________, attached to bone by ____________ fibers

  • Epiphysis: at each _________ of the long bone

- thin layer of compact bone composed largely of _____________ bone

- open network of struts and plates, like a lattice

- glassy hyaline cartilage known as an ____________ cartilage covers external surface providing a slippery surface that decreases friction

- ___________ line : remnant of epiphyseal plate when growth occurs

bone structure cont
Bone Structure Cont.
  • _______________: narrow zone connecting the epiphysis and diaphysis
  • Medullary cavity: central space in bone primarily a __________ area for adipose tissue

- in infants formation of blood cells and red marrow occurs here

structure of compact bone
Structure of Compact Bone
  • ____________ (Haversian system)

- basic unit of mature compact bone

- _______________ are arranged in concentric layers around a central canal

- canal contain blood vessels that carry blood to and from the osteon

- central canals generally ___________ to the surface of the bone

- perforating canals extend _____________ to the surface

- ____________ of each osteon form a series of nestled cylinders around the central canal (target/bullseye)

- _____________ radiating through the lamellae interconnect the lacunae with one another and the central canal

structure of spongy bone
Structure of Spongy Bone
  • Matrix

- forms struts and plates called ______________

- branch to create an _____________ network

- no capillaries or venules

- nutrients reach the osteocytes by _____________ along the canaliculi

  • Characteristics

- ____________ than compact bone

- able to withstand stress from multiple directions

  • Locations

- _________ bones (carpal of wrist)

- inner layer of _________ bones

- sesamoid

bone composition
Bone Composition
  • Specialized cells

ex.

  • Matrix consisting of extracellular protein fibers and ground substance

- very dense and contains _____________ deposits

- bone cells (ostecytes) inside of lacunae

- canaliculi

cells of the bone
Cells of the Bone
  • 4 types of cells

- ______________

- ______________

- ______________

- ______________

cells of bone cont
Cells of Bone Cont.
  • Osteocytes

- ______________ bone cells, cannot divide

- most abundant

- occupies a ___________ (tiny cavities) arranged in concentric circles called lamellae around central (Haversian) canals

- a central canal, and matrix rings is called an ___________ or Haversian system

- lamellae are penetrated by _________________ (narrow passageways) radiating through matrix connecting lacunae and sources of nutrients, such as a central canal

    • Functions:

- ____________ the protein and mineral content of the surrounding matrix

- participate in the _____________ of damaged bone

cells of bone cont20
Cells of Bone Cont.
  • Osteoblasts

- produce new bone matrix by _______________

- __________ and ___________ proteins and other organic components of the matrix before calcium salts are deposits

- assist in elevating local concentrations of calcium phosphate above its solubility limit triggering the deposition of calcium salts in the organic matrix converting matrix to bone

- become ______________ once completely surrounded by bone matrix

cells of bone cont21
Cells of Bone Cont.
  • Osteoprogenitor

- small numbers of _______________ cells

- squamous stem cells that divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts

- maintain populations of ________________

- important in the role of _______________

- located in the ______________

cells of bone cont22
Cells of Bone Cont.
  • Osteoclasts

- giant cells with more than 50 nuclei

- ___________ and _____________ bone matrix by secreting enzymes that dissolve and release stored minerals (osteolysis)

bone formation growth
Bone Formation, Growth
  • Two Ways
    • ______________________ bones originate between sheetlike layers of connective tissues

ex.

    • _______________ bones begin as masses of cartilage that are later replaced by bone tissue

ex.

intramembranous bones
Intramembranous Bones
  • broad, flat bones of the skull
  • membranelike layers of unspecialized, or relatively undifferentiated, connective tissue appear at sites of the future bones
  • some of the partially differentiated ____________ cells enlarge and further differentiate into bone-forming cells, ____________
  • osteoblasts ___________ bony matrix around themselves
  • as a result _________ bone tissue forms in all directions with the layers of connective tissue
  • when extracellular matrix completely surrounds osteoblasts, they become __________
  • formation of bone is known as _____________
endochondral bones
Endochondral Bones
  • most all bones of the skeleton
  • develop in the fetus from masses of ___________ ____________

- in long bones, change occurs from center of ____________

- _____________ slowly breaks down and disappears

- a ___________ forms from connective tissue that encircles the developing diaphysis

- blood vessels and osteoblasts from periosteum invade the disintegrating cartilage, and spongy bone forms in its place

- this region is called the _______________________

- bone growth occurs from it towards the ends of the cartilaginous structure

- osteoblasts from the periosteum deposit a thin layer of compact bone around the primary ossification center

endochondral bones cont
Endochondral Bones Cont.

- epiphyses remain cartilaginous and continue to grow

- secondary ossification centers appears, epiphyses fill with ______________ bone, except at the center where calcification occurs

- a band of cartilage remains between the two ossification sites, called the _____________ _____________

bone growth in length cont
Bone growth in Length Cont.

- cartilagenous tissue of the epiphyseal plate includes layers of young cells that are undergoing mitosis and producing new cells

- cells enlarge, and extracellular matrix form around them, thickening the cartilagenous plate, and lengthening the bone

- calcium salts accumulate in the extracellular matrix adjacent to the oldest cartilaginous cells, and as the matrix calcifies the cells begin to die

- _________ remove matrix as _________ deposit new bone

- epiphyses remain throughout life as __________ ________

- growth ends when the two ___________ _________ meet

- at puberty rising levels of sex, growth, and thyroid hormones stimulate bone growth; osteoblasts produce bone faster than chondrocytes at producing new cartilage

appostional growth
Appostional Growth

Appositional Bone growth (________________)

- ___________ in periosteum add bone tissue to the ___________ face of the _______________

- ____________ in the endosteum remove bone from the ______ face of the ____________ wall

- forms the a space resulting in a __________ ____________ which later fills with ___________

bone remodeling
Bone Remodeling
  • Remodeling

- components of bone continuously recycle and renew occurring throughout life

- older minerals deposits are removed from bone and released in to the circulation at the same time that circulating minerals are being absorbed and deposited

- “game” between osetocytes, blasts, and clasts

- osteocyts create ________, at the same rate osteoclasts remove one by ______________

- _______ of the adult skeleton is replaced every year

- femur spongy bone replaced 2-3 times a year

factors affecting bone growth remodel repair
Factors Affecting Bone Growth, Remodel & Repair
  • Nutrition

ex.

  • ____________

ex.

  • Physical Exercise

ex.

  • ____________

ex.

bone fractures
Bone Fractures
  • General Categories

- _________ (simple)

- _________ (compound)

  • Closed

- completely ______________

- no break of the skin, so they can only be seen in x-rays

- usually easy to treat

  • Open

- project through the ___________

- more dangerous due to possibility of infection

types of fractures
Types of fractures
  • Pott

- occurs at the ___________ and affects both bones of the leg

  • Comminuted

- ____________ bone into multiple fragments

  • _______________

- break bone shaft across its axis

  • Spiral

- ____________ up/down the length of the bone

  • Displaced/Nondisplaced

- produce new and abnormal bone arrangements

- retain normal ______________

type of fractures
Type of Fractures
  • Colles

- break in the distal portion of the radius

  • Greenstick

- only one side of the shaft is ____________, and the other is bent

  • Epiphyseal

- occur where bone matrix is undergoing calcification

- can permanently stop growth

  • Compression

- occur in the ____________

  • Avulsion

- tendon or ligament is injured in such a manner that it pulls off a piece of ________

repair of a fracture
Repair of a Fracture
  • Step 1

- blood vessel rupture, ____________ tears (usually)

- blood escapes spreading through damaged area leading to a ___________ or large blood clot

- vessels in surrounding tissue __________, swelling and inflaming tissue

  • Step2

- ___________ and new blood vessels from the periosteum invade the hematoma, create __________ bone

  • Step 3

- __________ fills in the gaps of broken bone, called a _______________ ________ (later be replaced by bone tissue very similar to endochondral bone)

  • Step 4

- ___________ appear and reabsorb fragments or dead bone is removed

- ___________ cells begin to remove blood clot and damaged cells

skeleton
Skeleton
  • 2 parts

- ___________

- _____________

  • Appendicular

- forms the longitudinal axis of the body

- ________ bones

- 40% of the bones in human body

- Includes

- ________________ & _______________

- _______________ column

- ________________ ____________

    • provide framework that supports and protects the brain, spinal cord, and organs in the ventral cavities
    • extensive surface areas for attachment of muscles
    • joints have limited movement
skull
Skull

- composed of the cranium, and facial bones

- encloses the cranial cavity, a ___________ filled _____________ that cushions and supports the brain

- occipital, parietal, and frontal bones form the _____________

- blood vessels, nerves, and membranes that stabilize the position of the brain are attached to the inner surface of the cranium

- outer surface provides areas of attachment for muscles of the eyes, jaws, and head

- joint between occipital bone and 1st vertebrae of neck stabilize the positions of the brain and spinal cord

skull cont
Skull Cont.
  • Contains 22 bones

- __ form the cranium

- __________ - ethmoid - ___________

- frontal - _________ - temporal (2)

- 14 facial

- maxilla (2) - ___________ - palatine (2)

- _________ - nasal (2) - ___________

- vomer - inferior nasal concha (2)

skull facial
Skull (Facial)

- superficial bones

-

- provide areas for the attachment of muscles that control facial features and assist in the manipulating of food

- deep bones

-

- separate the __________ and __________ cavities

- increase surface area of cavities

- help form the nasal septum which divides the ____________ _____________

skull cont40
Skull Cont.
  • Sinuses

- ______________ chambers

- two major functions

- make bone ______________

- mucous membrane lining produces mucus that moistens and cleans air

  • Joints or Articulations

- form where two bones ________________

- exception between mandible and cranium contact

- sutures are located between ______________ joints of the skull bones in adults

- bones are tied together via dense fibrous connective tissue

- ___ major sutures

skull cont41
Skull Cont.
  • ________________

- arches across the posterior surface of the skull

- seperates the occipital bone from the two parietal bones

  • Coronal

- attaches the ___________ bone to the _________ bones of either side

  • _______________

- extends from lambdoid suture to the coronal suture, between the parietal bones

  • Squamous

- one each side of the skull forms the boundary between the ____________ bone and the ______________ bone of that side

orbital complexes
Orbital Complexes
  • __________ bones and ___________ bones which surrounds each eye, and the nasal complex surrounding the cavities
  • protect and support openings of the digestive and respiratory systems and sense organs responsible for vision and smell
  • Orbits

- __________ recesses that contain the eyes

- each orbit is formed by ___ bones of the orbital complex

nasal complexes
Nasal Complexes
  • bones that enclose the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses
  • Paranasal Sinuses

- sphenoid - ethmoid - frontal bone - maxillia - palantine bone

- lighten the skull bones and provide an extensive area of ____________ epithelium

- as mucous secretions are released ciliated epithelium pass it back toward the throat to be swallowed or expelled by coughing

- incoming air is _______________ and warmed

- foreign particles are trapped swallowed or expelled by coughing

fontanelles
Fontanelles

- fibrous membranes connecting cranial bones

  • _________ fontanelle (exists about 2 years after birth)

- largest

- located at the intersection of the frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures in the anterior portion of the skull

- often referred to as the “soft spot”

  • Occiptial fontanelle (disappear 1-2 months after birth)

- junction between the lambdoid and ___________ sutures

  • ____________ fontanelles

- junctions between the squamous and coronal sutures

  • Mastoid fontanelles (disappear 1-2 months after birth)

- junctions between the ____________ and lambdoid suture

vertebral column
Vertebral Column
  • consists of ____ bones

- vertebrae (___) – _________ - __________

  • provides a column of support
  • bears the weight of the head, neck, and trunk
  • protects the ____________ __________
  • helps maintain an upright body position
  • averages 71 cm or 28 in in adults
  • several __________
spinal curvature
Spinal Curvature
  • ___ curves
    • ____________

- neck

    • ____________

- upper back

    • ____________

- lower back

    • ____________

- gluteal reigon

vertebral anatomy
Vertebral Anatomy
  • 3 basic parts

- vertebral ___________

- vertebral ___________

- ____________ process

  • Vertebral Body

- transfers _______ along the axis of the vertebral column

- interconnected by ____________

- separated by fibrous cartilage (_______________ discs)

  • Vertebral Arch

- forms the posterior margin of each vertebral _________

- ____________ (walls) arise along the posterior and lateral margins of body

- roof called ___________, extend dorsally and medially

- successive vertebrae form the vertebral __________, enclosing spinal cord

vertebral anatomy cont
Vertebral Anatomy Cont.

- intervertebral discs separate adjacent vertebral bodies

- intervertibral __________ (gaps) separate successive pedicles, permitting passage of ___________

- ___________ process projects ____________ where vertebral laminae fuse to complete arch

(feel through skin when back is flexed)

- _____________ processes project ___________ on both sides where laminae join pedicles

- sites for muscle attachments

- some articulate with ribs

  • Articular processes

- arise at the junction between the pedicles and the laminae

- superior articulate with inferior on each side

- each articulation has a smooth concave surface called an articular ___________

vertebral regions
Vertebral Regions
  • Cervical

- _______, create the neck

- extend from ____________ bone to the thorax

- _________ of the vertebral column

- small body compared to foramen

- support only the _________________ of the head

  • General Characteristics __________

- superior surface of body is ___________ side to side

- slopes with the anterior edge inferior to posterior edge

- stumpy spinous process, __________ than the diameter of foramen, with prominent __________ (bifid)

- laterally transverse processes are fused to ____________ processes

- encircle round transverse ______________

- provide more flexibility than other regions

vertebral regions cont
Vertebral Regions Cont.
  • Atlas: __(after Atlas who holds the world on his shoulders)

- holds up the ________

- articulates superiorly with occipital _________, allowing us to nod yes

- articulates with the ____, allowing us rotation for no

- no ___________ ____________

- ________, _______ vertebral foramen bounded by anterior and posterior arches

  • Axis: ___

- during development fuses with atlas creating the prominent ________ (adontoid)

- a __________ ligament binds the dens to the inner surface of the atlas

- strong spinous process for muscle attachment

- incomplete in children

vertebral regions cont51
Vertebral Regions Cont.
  • Vertebra Prominens (__)

- has a _______, ___________ spinous process

- ends in a broad ____________ (you can feel this)

- ____________ process are large, for muscle processes

- beginning of the ______________ _________

- extends to an insertion along the occipital crest

- attaches to the spinous processes of other cervical vertebrae

- acts like a string on a bow

vertebral regions cont52
Vertebral Regions Cont.
  • Thoracic

- ___ vertebrae

  • General Characteristics

- _________ shaped body more massive than cervical

- smaller ____________ than cervical

- long, slender _________ processes projecting posterior and inferiorly

- T10-12 increasingly resemble lumbar region

- compression injuries often occur here

- articulate with ribs along dorsolateral surfaces of body

- costal facets on bodies articulate with heads of ribs

- transverse process T1-10 ,thick, contain transverse costal facets for ribs

slide53

Vertebral Regions Cont.

  • Sacrum- fused components of five sacral vertebrae, marked by ____________ ____________

- begin fusing after puberty end between 25-30yrs old

- protect the reproductive, digestive and urinary organs

- superior _____________ ___________ of the first sacral vertebrae articulate with the last lumber vertebrae

- attaches the ________ skeleton to the _______ ________ of the ______________ skeleton

- sacrum is ___________, convex posterior surface

- sacral canal: __________ that begins between the articular processes and extends the length of the sacrum

- nerves & membranes from spinal cord enter canal

- fused spinous processes form a ridge, __________ ____________ ___________

- _________ at the 5th vertebrae do not contact one another at the midline forming the sacral __________

vertebral regions cont54
Vertebral Regions Cont.

- sacral __________: opening at the inferior end of canal

- sacral foramina: _________ on each side of the median sacral crest (__ pairs)

- ________ transverse processes create __________ __________ ____________

- site of muscle attachments

- sacrum is curved (degree varies with sex and individual)

- auricular surface: thick flattened area lateral and anterior to the superior portion of the lateral sacral crest

- site of articulation with the ___________ ________

- sacral ____________: roughened area between the lateral sacral crest and the auricular surface

- ________: narrow, inferior portion

- ________: broad superior surface

- sacral ________, prominent bulge at anterior tip of base

- sacral ______: wings

vertebral regions cont55
Vertebral Regions Cont.
  • Coccyx

- consist of _____ _________ vertebrae

- begin fusing around 25 but do not fuse completely until late adulthood

- provided attachment sites for ligaments and bone

-1st and 2nd have vertebrae have __________ ___________ and unfused __________

- prominent laminae of the 1st coccygeal vertebrae are known as the coccygeal ________, curve to meet with sacral _________

vertebral regions cont56
Vertebral Regions Cont.
  • Coccyx

- consist of ___ coccygeal vertebrae

- begin fusing around 25 but do not fuse completely until late adulthood

- provided attachment sites for ligaments and bone

-1st and 2nd vertebrae have ______________ __________and __________ arches

- prominent __________ of the 1st coccygeal vertebrae are known as the coccygeal ________, curve to meet with sacral cornua

thoracic cage
Thoracic Cage

- includes thoracic ____________, ______, and ________

- ribs and sternum form _______ _______

- protects heart, lungs thymus and other structures in cavity

- serves at attachment site for muscles

  • Ribs (costae)

- very _________

- elongated, curved, flattened bones

- ____ pairs:

- 1-7 are _________ ribs; connected to the __________ by costal cartilages

- increase in _______ from 1-7 and radius of curvature

- 8-12 are _______ do not attach to sternum directly merge with cartilages of other ribs to attach

thoracic cage58
Thoracic Cage

- 11 and 12 are ___________ ribs, no sternum attachment

- __________ attaches to the vertebral column

- ________ dividing the articular surface into __________ and _____________ sections

- short ______ leading to tubercle, inferior portions contains and articular _______ connecting to transverse process of vertebrae

- ________ is the site where curvature of shaft begins towards sternum

- internal rib surface is concave with prominent costal _________ along inferior border for nerves and blood vessels

- superficial surface is convex provides sites for muscle attachments

sternum
Sternum

- flat bone forming anterior midline of the thoracic wall

- ___ components

- _____________

- broad, triangular, _____________ portion

- articulates with ___________ and cartilage of 1st ribs

- contains ___________ ________ (shallow indentation) at clavicle articulations

- ___________

- ________ shaped

- attaches to the inferior portion of ___________ extending inferiorly at midline

- attaches ribs 2-7

sternum60
Sternum

- ____________ process

- smallest part of sternum

- attached to inferior surface of body

objectives61
Objectives
  • Identify the bones that form the pectoral girdle, their functions, and their superficial features
  • Identify the bones on the upper limbs, their functions, and their superficial features
  • Identify the bones that form the pelvic girdle, their functions, and their superficial features
  • Identify the bones that form the lower limbs, their functions, and their superficial features.
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton

- include the bones of the limbs and the supporting elements, or girdles, that connect them to the trunk

- allows manipulations of objects and movement

- primarily long bones

pectoral girdle
Pectoral Girdle
  • Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle)

- articulates the arm with the trunk

- consists of:

- two ___________

- two ___________

pectoral girdle cont
Pectoral Girdle Cont.
  • Clavicles

- _____________ bones that originate at the ___________, __________ border on the manubrium

- extending from sternal end each clavicle ___________ laterally and posteriorly (about half its length)

- forms a smooth posterior curve to articulate with a _____________ _________ of the ____________

- flat, acromial end is __________ than sternal end

- relatively small and fragile

- easily fractured and rapidly healed without cast

pectoral girdle cont65
Pectoral Girdle Cont.
  • Scapulae

- anterior surface of the body forms a broad __________

- 3 _______: _________, medial, and __________

- 3 _______: superior, _________, and lateral ______

- lateral angle or ______, forms a broad process that supports the cup-shaped ___________ ___________

- at glenoid cavity scapula articulates with _________ known as the __________________ ____________

- anterior surface is relatively smooth and concave

- contains a depression, called a _____________ ______

- two large process

- smaller, anterior projection is the ___________

- larger, posterior projection is the ___________

pectoral girdle cont66
Pectoral Girdle Cont.

- _____________ _________: ridge crossing the posterior surface of body ending at the medial border

- divides the convex posterior surface of the body into two regions

- superior area constitutes the _____________ ___________

- inferior area constitutes the ______________ ___________

upper limbs
Upper Limbs

- consists of the ___________, ________, ________, ___________, ____________ and ___________

  • Humerus

- proximal end: round _________

- articulates with __________

- _______________ _____________: rounded projection on lateral surface of epiphysis

- _______________ _____________: smaller projection on anterior, medial surface of the epiphysis

- separated by the ____________ _________ (sulcus)

- _____________ neck: lies between the tubercles and articular surface of the head, marks the extent of the joint capsule

- ___________ neck: metaphysis of bone

upper limbs cont
Upper Limbs Cont.

- __________ tuberosity: rough, large elevation on lateral surface of shaft (about halfway along its length)

- __________ _________: depression on posterior surface at end of deltoid tuberosity

- _____________ (medial & lateral): shaft expands near distal articulation on both sides

- condyle: divided into 2 articular regions

- ___________: pulley, spooled shaped medial portion of condyle, extending from the base of cornoid fossa on anterior surface to the olecranon fossa of the posterior surface

- ___________: forms the lateral surface of condyle

- ________ ________: shallow, and superior, allowing for a portion of the radial head

upper limbs cont69
Upper Limbs Cont.
  • Ulna

- one of two parallel bones of the forearm

- in anatomical position, lies most medial

- shaft is triangular narrows before ending at a disc-shaped ulnar head near wrist

- lateral surface of head articulates with distal end of radius forming the distal ______________ ________

- posterior lateral surface bears a __________ ______

- ____________: superior end (point of the elbow)

- ___________ notch: anterior surface of the proximal epiphysis articulates with trochlea of humerus at elbow joint

- olecranon forms upper lip

- coronoid process forms inferior lip

- _________ notch: accommodates the head of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint

upper limbs cont70
Upper Limbs Cont.
  • Radius

- lateral bone of forearm

- radial head articulates with capitulum of humerus

- narrow radial neck extends from radial head to radial tuberosity

- shaft curves along its length, enlarging distally

- ____________ notch: medial surface of distal end, articulating with head of ulna

- ___________ __________: lateral surface helping with stabilization

upper limbs cont71
Upper Limbs Cont.
  • Carpal Bones

- 8 bones, forming 2 rows (4 proximal, 4 distal)

    • Proximal

- _________ - ______________

- _________ - ______________

    • Distal

- ___________ - _____________

- ___________ - _____________

**Sam likes to push the toy car hard** (lateral to medial)

upper limbs cont72
Upper Limbs Cont.
  • Metacarpals

- ___ bones usually specified with roman numeral beginning laterally (thumb)

  • Phalanges

- ___ bones

- __________ (thumb) has 2

proximal, distal

- others have 3

proximal, medial and distal

pelvic girdle
Pelvic Girdle
  • Pelvic Girdle

- consists of 2 ________ (hips bones)

- formed by the fusion of 3 bones, _________, ______________, and ___________

- ___________ __________: joint of fibrous cartilage connecting medial surfaces

- ___________: concave socket on lateral surface articulating with head of femur

- ridge forms superior and lateral margins

- acetabular ________: incomplete inferior portion

- ________ surface: cup-shaped articular surface

- ilium, ischium and pubis meet here (pieces of pie)

pelvic girdle cont
Pelvic Girdle Cont.

- _______ forms a broad, curved surface

- articulate with auricle surfaces of sacrum

- landmarks: iliac spines, gluteal lines, greater sciatic notch

- __________ forms posterior, inferior portion

- ischial spine, tuberosity, ramus

pelvic girdle cont75
Pelvic Girdle Cont.
  • Pelvis

- 2 _________, _____________, and the __________

- divided into a ___________ and ___________

true: encloses the _____________ _____________

- superior limit is a line that extends from either side of the base of the sacrum, along the arcuate line and pectineal line to pubic symphysis

- pelvic _______: bony edge

- pelvic _______: enclosed space

false: expanded bladelike portions of each ilium superior to pelvic brim

- pelvic _______: opening bounded by the coccyx, ischial tuberosities, and inferior border of the pubic symphysis

male vs female pelvis
Male vs. Female Pelvis
  • Differences

- Female

- enlarged pelvic outlet

- broader pubic angle; greater than 100 degrees

- less curvature on the sacrum and coccxy

- wider, more circular pelvic outlet

- relatively broad pelvis that does not extend as far superiorly

- ilia that projects farther laterally, but do not extend as far superior to the sacrum

lower limbs
Lower Limbs

- consists of the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges

  • Femur

- longest, heaviest bone in the body

- articulates with coxal (proximal), tibia (distal)

- femoral __________ articulates with acetabulum

- a ligament attaches acetabulum to ________ ________ (small pit in the center of the femoral head)

- _______ joins the shaft at a ~125 degree angle

- greater trochanter: large, rough projection _________

- lesser trochanter: projects posteriorly, and __________

- _______________ line: anteriorly marks edge of articular capsule continuing to the posterior surface as intertrochanteric __________

lower limbs cont
Lower Limbs Cont.

- _________ _________: prominent elevation along center posterior surface

- separates as it approaches knee joint into two ridges

- lateral supracondylar ridge

- medial supracondylar ridge

- medial/lateral epicondyles: smooth round projections superior to condyles

- _____________ fossa: deep depression separating condyles posteriorly

- does not reach anterior surface

- ____________ surface: anterior and inferior surfaces separating condyles

lower limbs cont79
Lower Limbs Cont.
  • Patella

- cartilaginous at birth, ossifies after walking begins (2-3) ending at puberty

- large sesamoid bone formed within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris

- rough, convex anterior surface with broad base

apex is connect to tibia via ligaments

- posterior surface contains two concave facets for articulations with the medial/lateral condyles of femur

- glides superior-inferior only unless unproper tracking develops

ex.

lower limbs cont80
Lower Limbs Cont.
  • Tibia

- large ___________ bone of leg

- articulate proximally with medial/lateral condyles of femur

- intercondylar __________: ridge that separates condyles

- tibial tuberosity: anterior surface, near condyles

- anterior _____________: ridge that begins at the tibial tuberosity and extends distally along the anterior surface

- broadens distally, medial border ending in the medial ____________ (projection of ankle), inferior surface articulating with talus

lower limbs cont81
Lower Limbs Cont.
  • Fibula

- small lateral bone of the leg

- ________ articulates anteriorly and inferiorly with the tibial condyle

- no articulation with femur

- distal tip or lateral malleolus (fibular process) extends lateral to ankle joint

- non-weight bearing bone

lower limbs cont82
Lower Limbs Cont.
  • Tarsals

- __ bones

- _______ - _________

- _______ - _________

- ___________ (medial, intermediate, lateral)

lower limbs cont83
Lower Limbs Cont.
  • Metatarsals

- __ bones usually specified with roman numeral beginning medial to lateral across the sole

- I-III articulate with the three ____________ bones

- IV-V articulate with the ___________

  • Phalanges

- ____ bones

- ______ (great toe) has 2

proximal, distal

- others have 3

proximal, medial and distal

arches of the foot
Arches of the Foot
  • __________________ arch

- __________________ arch

-

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