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History Recap. Scott Matthews 12-712/ 19-622 Lecture 2. Administrative Issues. How are we doing on seats? Recheck list. Please sign paper going around and circle or add your name. TAs: Shaz Attari, Mike Blackhurst. Contact info coming on syllabus / web page When should office hours be?

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History Recap

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History recap

History Recap

Scott Matthews

12-712/ 19-622

Lecture 2


Administrative issues

Administrative Issues

  • How are we doing on seats? Recheck list.

  • Please sign paper going around and circle or add your name


Tas shaz attari mike blackhurst

TAs: Shaz Attari, Mike Blackhurst

  • Contact info coming on syllabus / web page

  • When should office hours be?

    • HWs generally due on Wednesdays


Definitions

Definitions

  • Sustainability

  • Sustainable “X”

  • Green / Green “X”

  • Green Engineering

  • Sustainable Engineering

  • ...


Sustainable engineering from cse website

Sustainable Engineeringfrom CSE website

  • Engineering for human development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

    • Using methods that minimize environmental damage to provide sufficient food, water, shelter, and mobility for a growing world population

    • Designing products and processes so that wastes from one are used as inputs to another

    • Incorporating environmental and social constraints as well as economic considerations into engineering decisions


Green engineering

Green Engineering

  • Anastas: “Achieving sustainability through science and technology”.

  • “The 12 Principles of Green Engineering provide a framework for scientists and engineers to engage in when designing new materials, products, processes, and systems that are benign to human health and the environment. A design based on these moves beyond baseline engineering quality and safety specifications to consider environmental, economic, and social factors.


Resources

Resources

  • Water

  • Air

  • Energy

  • Materials

  • Natural regeneration (ultimate sink?)


Pareto efficiency

Pareto Efficiency

  • Cliff’s reading discussed need to satiate the rich without compromising the poor/etc

  • Opportunity Cost


Lessons over time

Lessons over time

  • We have been living and dealing with issues relevant to sustainability (and interfering with natural systems intentionally and accidentally) for 5000 years but have not necessarily LEARNED from our experience

    • Crop mutations by accident/ignorance


Interaction of human and natural systems

Interaction of Human and Natural Systems

  • Progress was seen as triumph over nature

  • We knew how to smelt metals but did not necessarily have sufficient local resources (eg fuelwood) to do it.

    • Led to deforestation

    • Tragedy of the Commons

  • We were unable as society to cope with drought/flood variations


Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia

  • Due to various factors, availability of food collapsed, as did population

  • Over time, we just engineered other systems as backups (they too can fail)

    • Our continued push was to (re)engineer a solution to every problem

  • Now we look to understand (all) potential problems and engineer a better


Thoughts

Thoughts

  • Think about the plan/design needed for the pyramids. How would the “plan to build the pyramids” be perceived today?

    • What was their purpose?

    • What was the inevitable functional lifetime?

    • Resources needed (and from where)

    • Alternatives?

  • Any recent examples? Same scale?


Needs for local imported resources

Needs for local / imported resources

  • Virtual water papers?

  • Stone age didn’t end because we ran out of stone

  • Iron age didn’t end because we ran out of iron


Our first mega cities

Our first mega cities

  • Greek city-states of 100,000+

  • Now (only 4 in US):

    • 1. Tokyo, Japan - 34,100,000 (1 in 2000!)
2. Mexico City, Mexico - 22,650,000
3. Seoul, South Korea - 22,250,000
4. New York, United States - 21,850,000
5. Sao Paulo, Brazil - 20,200,000
6. Mumbai, India - 19,700,000
7. Dehli, India - 19,500,000
8. Los Angeles, United States - 17,950,000
9. Shanghai, China - 17,900,000
10. Jakarta, Indonesia - 17,150,000


Effects of big cities

Effects of big cities

  • Waste management a bigger problem


Aristotle

Aristotle

  • Natural economy

  • Un-natural economy (retail, wealth by exchange)

  • Partly natural (resource extraction)


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