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第六章 一般毒性作用 ( common toxicity of chemical poison ) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第六章 一般毒性作用 ( common toxicity of chemical poison ). 毒性评价或安全性评价的基本目的. 受试物毒作用的表现和性质 剂量-反应(效应)研究 确定毒作用的靶器官 确定损伤的可逆性 其它:敏感检测指标和生物学标志、毒作用机制、毒物动力学、中毒的解救措施 …. 毒理学研究方法. 动物实验. 体内试验 体外试验. 人群调查. 人体观察 流行病学研究. 体内实验:以实验动物为模型,最终目的是通过外源化学物对实验动物的毒性反应,向人 ( 原型 ) 外推,以期评估外源化学物对人的危害及危险性。

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第六章 一般毒性作用 ( common toxicity of chemical poison )

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common toxicity of chemical poison




  • ()


in vitro

in vivo


  • //



  • SPF

  • SPF


  • 33()


  • GLP



  • ..

  • .


acute toxicity


acute toxicity

24h14


  • In 1984, 5,000 people died and 30,000 were permanently disabled due to exposure to methyl isocyanateMIC from an industrial accident in India

  • Many people die each year from inhaling carbon monoxide from faulty heaters


  • : ()

    24h

  • 7~14



  • LD50



  • -


  • ED,TDED50, TD50,


  • Zac=LD50/Limac


LD50

  • Horn4

    moving average interpolation

  • Karber

  • Bliss

    maximum likelihood method


  • S

  • 5<20%>80


LD50

  • Horn

    moving average interpolation

  • Bliss

    maximum likelihood method




  • rodent species

  • NIHICR

  • Sprague-DawleySDWistar

  • nonrodent species



  • 20%

  • 180-240g

  • 18-25g

  • 2-2.5kg


  • LD50


  • LD504-6

  • 106


  • 12~3


  • 2h



  • 20ml/kg()

  • 2ml/kg

  • 1ml/kg(5min)


()



  • >>>>>>>

  • LD50


LD50


  • 23h


  • 45cm1mm68cm1.2mm20


  • ,,34cm46cm0.21ml14ml15ml




(L/)

(L/)

()

25L

50L

100L

300L

1.45

10.18

3.45

30.5

3~5

6~10

1

12~15

1~2

36~40

5~6




A B



  • 10%



(ml)


4310LD100LD0

  • 10%-90%0%-100%

  • LD50


i =lgLD90-lgLD10/n-1

i =lgLD100- lgLD0/n-1

inLD0LD10i


LD50

  • LD502g/kg 5g/kg




6-1


  • LD50


  • 12




  • 2


  • 14

  • LD50(LC50)

  • 24h


LD50(LC50)LD50(acute toxicity classification)



  • LD50


1

Introduction

2

Method and materials

3

Results

4

Discussions



1

1.1



  • 5min60min




  • LD501470mg/kg14.70mg/kg6.81mg/kg1727.10mg/kg1717.94mg/kg



  • -


Thank You !


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