Group 14 carbon
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Group 14 Carbon. By : Yesenia , jose , & Jorge. The elements…. Carbon is found free in nature in three allotropic forms: amorphous, graphite, and diamond. Graphite is one of the softest known materials while diamond is one of the hardest.

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Group 14 Carbon

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Group 14 carbon

Group 14Carbon

By :

Yesenia, jose, & Jorge


The elements

The elements…

  • Carbon is found free in nature in three allotropic forms: amorphous, graphite, and diamond. Graphite is one of the softest known materials while diamond is one of the hardest.

  • Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. It is found largely as silicon oxides such as sand (silica), quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, agate, flint, jasper and opal. Silicon is found also in minerals such as asbestos, feldspar, clay and mica.

  • Germanium is a gray-white semi-metal, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle, retaining its lustre in air at room temperature. It is a very important semiconductor material. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an impurity of only one part in 10-10.

  • Tin is a silvery-white metal, is malleable, somewhat ductile, and has a highly crystalline structure. Due to the breaking of these crystals, a "tin cry" is heard when a bar is bent. The element has two allotropic forms. On warming, grey, or α-tin, with a cubic structure, changes at 13.2°C into white, or β-tin, the ordinary form of the metal. White tin has a tetragonal structure. When tin is cooled below 13.2°C, it changes slowly from white to grey.


The elements continued

The elements continued..

  • Lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal. It is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion but tarnishes upon exposure to air.

  • Holmium is relatively soft and malleable, and is stable in dry air at room temperature. It oxidises rapidly in moist air and at elevated temperatures. The metal has unusual magnetic properties. The metal is a rare earth metal found in monazite, gadolinite and other minerals.

  • Einsteinium is radioactive rare earth metal named after Albert Einstein. It is of no commercial importance and only a few of its compounds are known


Carbon family

Carbon family

  • The carbon family consist of carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, holmium & einsteinium.


Electronegativity

Electronegativity

  • The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract a shared electron pair to itself, forming a polar covalent bond.

  • The electronegativity generally increases as you go from left to right across the periodic table. It decreases as you go down the periodic table.

  • The horizontal comparison. As you go across a period from left to right, the atoms of each element all have the same number of energy levels and the same number of shielding electrons. The factor that predominates is the increased nuclear charge. When the nuclear charge increases, so will the attraction that the atom has for electrons in its outermost energy level and that means the electro negativity will increase.

  • when you go from one atom to another down a group, you are adding one more energy level of electrons for each period. The increased shielding nearly balances the increased nuclear charge and the predominant factor is the number of energy levels that are used by the electrons. So as you go from fluorine to chlorine to bromine and so on down the periodic table, the electrons are further away from the nucleus and better shielded from the nuclear charge and not as attracted to the nucleus. For that reason the electronegativity decreases as you go down the periodic table.


Similarities between elements in the family

Similarities between elements in the family

  • These elements have only two electrons in the outermost p orbital. That is, their valence electron configuration is ns2np2.  They tend to have oxidation states of +4 and, for the heavier elements, +2 due to the inert pair effect.

  • Members of this group conform well to general periodic trends. The atomic radii increase as you move down the group, and ionization energies decrease. Metallic properties increase as you move down the group.  Carbon is a non-metal; silicon and germanium are metalloids; and tin and lead are poor metals

  • Despite their adherence to periodic trends, the properties of the Carbon family vary greatly. Carbon is a non-metal. Tin and Lead behave entirely as metals. In their elemental solid state, Group 14 metalloids, silicon and germanium, act as electrical semiconductors, although silicon is mainly non-metallic.

  • With 4 valence shell electrons, elements of the carbon family tend to form covalent compounds. With increasing mass and atomic radius these elements become increasingly metallic and have lower melting and boiling points. Group 14 elements form gaseous hydrogen compounds with difficulty. These are either unstable or combustible. All but lead form oxides, sulfides, and halides in the +4 oxidation state. The +4 oxidation state predominates in carbon, silicon, and germanium; the +2 and +4 oxidation states both appear in tin, and the +2 oxidation state prevails in lead. Halides in the +4 state form for all of these elements, and they are covalent.


Atomic ionic size

Atomic/ionic size

  • Both atomic radii and atomic volume increases gradually on moving down the group due to the effect of extra shell being added from member to member.

  •    C        Si       GeSnPb

  •  Atomic radius (pm)       0.77    111      122        141        144

  •  Atomic volume (ml)       3.4    11.4     13.6       16.3       18.27

  • Some of the ionic radii involving six co-ordination of these group elements are given below,

  •                                        C          Si          GeSnPb

  •  Ionic radius (M2+) in pm     –          –           73          118       119

  •  Ionic radius (M++) in pm     –         40          53           69         78


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