Chapter 51 management of patients with immunodeficiency
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Chapter 51 Management of Patients With Immunodeficiency. Learning Objectives. Compare the different types of primary immunodeficiency disorders and their causes, clinical manifestations, potential complications, and treatment modalities.

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Chapter 51 Management of Patients With Immunodeficiency

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Chapter 51 management of patients with immunodeficiency

Chapter 51Management of Patients With Immunodeficiency


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Compare the different types of primary immunodeficiency disorders and their causes, clinical manifestations, potential complications, and treatment modalities.

  • Describe the nursing management of the patient with an immunodeficiency.

  • Identify the essential teaching needs for a patient with an immunodeficiency.


Primary immunodeficiencies

Primary Immunodeficiencies

  • Usually seen in infants and young children

  • Manifestations: vary according to type, severe or recurrent infections, failure to thrive or poor growth, positive family history

  • Potential complications: recurrent, severe, potentially fatal infections; related blood dyscrasias or malignancies

  • Treatment: varies by type, treatment of infection, pooled plasma or immunoglobulin, GM-CSF or GCSF, thymus graft, stem cell or bone marrow transplant


Immunodeficiency disorders

Immunodeficiency Disorders

  • Primary

    • Genetic

    • May effect phagocytic function, B cells and/or T cells, or the complement system

  • Secondary

    • Acquired

    • HIV/AIDS

    • Related to underlying disorders, diseases, toxic substances, or medications


Nursing management

Nursing Management

  • Monitor for signs and symtoms of infections

    • Note symptoms of inflammatory response may be blunted

  • Monitor lab values

  • Promote good nutrition

  • Address anxiety, stress, and coping

  • Strategies to reduce risk of infection

    • Handwashing and strict aseptic technique

    • Patient protection and hygiene measures: skin care, promote normal bowel and bladder function, pulmonary hygiene


Patient teaching

Patient Teaching

  • Signs and symptoms of infection

  • Medication teaching

  • Prevention of infection

    • Handwashing

    • Avoid crowds and persons with infections

    • Hygiene and cleaning

  • Nutrition and diet

  • Lifestyle modifications to reduce risk

  • Follow-up care


Question

Question

Is the following statement True or False?

Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is an disorder involving a complete absence of humoral and cellular immunity resulting from an X-linked or autosomal genetic abnormality.


Answer

Answer

True

Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is an disorder involving a complete absence of humoral and cellular immunity resulting from an X-linked or autosomal genetic abnormality.


Chapter 52 management of patients with hiv infection and aids

Chapter 52Management of Patients With HIV Infection and AIDS


Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the modes of transmission of HIV infection and prevention strategies.

  • Describe the host/HIV interaction during primary infection.

  • Explain the pathophysiology associated with the clinical manifestations of HIV/AIDS.

  • Describe the clinical management of patients with HIV/AIDS.

  • Discuss the nursing interventions appropriate for patients with HIV/AIDS.

  • Use the nursing process as a framework for care of the patient with HIV/AIDS.


Transmission of hiv

Transmission of HIV

  • Transmitted by body fluids containing HIV or infected CD4 lymphocytes

    • Blood, seminal fluid, vaginal secretions, amniotic fluid, and breast milk

    • Most prenatal infections occur during delivery

  • Casual contact does not cause transmission

  • Breaks in skin or mucosa increase risk


High risk behaviors

High-Risk Behaviors

  • Sharing infected injection equipment

  • Having sexual relations with infected individuals


Question1

Question

Is the following statement True or False?

The major means of HIV transmission are unprotected sex and the sharing of injection drug use equipment.


Answer1

Answer

True

The major means of HIV transmission are unprotected sex and the sharing of injection drug use equipment.


Prevention

Prevention

  • Standard precautions

  • Safer sex practices and safer behaviors

    • Abstain from sharing sexual fluids

    • Reduce the number of sexual partners to one

    • Always use latex condoms; if allergic to latex, use non-latex condoms

  • Do not share drug injection equipment

  • Blood screening and treatment of blood products


Hiv life cycle

HIV Life Cycle

  • Attachment

  • Uncoating

  • DNA synthesis

  • Integration

  • Transcription

  • Translation

  • Cleavage

  • Budding


Structure of hiv 1

Structure of HIV-1


Life cycle of hiv 1

Life Cycle of HIV-1


Stages of hiv disease

Stages of HIV Disease

  • Primary infection

  • HIV asymptomatic

  • HIV symptomatic

  • AIDS


Primary infection

Primary Infection

  • AKA acute HIV infection/acute HIV syndrome

  • Part of CDC category A

  • Symptoms: none to flu-like syndrome

  • Window period: lack of HIV antibodies

  • Period of rapid viral replication and dissemination through the body

  • Viral set point: balance between amount of HIV and the immune response


Hiv asymptomatic

HIV Asymptomatic

  • CDC category A

  • More than 500 CD4+ T lymphpocytes/mm3

  • Upon reaching the viral set point, chronic asymptomatic state begins

  • Body has sufficient immune response to defend against pathogens


Hiv symptomatic

HIV Symptomatic

  • CDC category B

  • 200–499 CD4+ lymphpocytes/mm3

  • CD4 T cells gradually fall

  • The patient develops symptoms or conditions related to the HIV infection, which are not classified as category C conditions

  • Patients who are once treated for a category B condition are considered category B


Chapter 51 management of patients with immunodeficiency

AIDS

  • CDC category C

  • Less than 200 CD4+ lymphocytes/mm3

  • As levels drop below 100 cell/mm3 the immune system is significantly impaired

  • Development of listed conditions


Treatment

Treatment

  • Treatment and protocols are continually evolving

  • Antiretroviral agents

    • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

    • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)

    • Protease inhibitors (PIs)

    • Fusion inhibitors

    • Use of combination therapy

  • Management also focuses upon the treatment of specific manifestations and conditions related to the disease


Question2

Question

Is the following statement True or False?

A fungal infection present in almost all patients with HIV/AIDS is Kaposi’s sarcoma.


Answer2

Answer

False

A fungal infection present in almost all patients with HIV/AIDS is candidiasis, not Kaposi’s sarcoma.


Clinical manifestations of hiv aids respiratory

Clinical Manifestations of HIV/AIDS: Respiratory

  • Pneumocystic carini pneumonia (PCP):

    • Most common infection

    • Initial symptoms may be nonspecific and may include nonproductive cough, fever chills, dyspnea, and chest pain

    • If untreated, progresses to pulmonary impairment and respiratory failure

    • Treatment: TMP-SMZ or pentamidine, prophylactic TMP-SMZ

  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)

  • Tuberculosis


Clinical manifestations of hiv aids gi

Clinical Manifestations of HIV/AIDS: GI

  • Oral candidiasis

    • May progress to esophagus and stomach

    • Treatment with Mycelex troches or nystatin, ketoconazole

  • Diarrhea related to HIV infection or enteric pathogens

    • Octretide acetate for severe chronic diarrhea

  • Wasting syndrome

    • 10% weight loss and chronic diarrhea or chronic weakness and fever with absence of other cause

    • Protein energy malnutrition

    • Anorexia, diarrhea, GI malabsorption, and lack of nutrition may contribute


Clinical manifestations of hiv aids oncologic

Clinical Manifestations of HIV/AIDS: Oncologic

  • Kaposi's sarcoma

    • Cutaneous lesions, but may involve multiple organ systems

    • Lesions cause discomfort, disfigurement, ulceration, and potential for infection

  • B-cell lymphomas


Lesions of kaposi s sarcoma

Lesions of Kaposi’s Sarcoma


Manifestations of hiv aids neurologic

Manifestations of HIV/AIDS: Neurologic

  • HIV encephalopathy

    • Progressive cognitive, behavioral, and motor decline

    • Probably directly related to the HIV infection

  • Cryptococcus neoformans

  • Other neurologic disorders

  • Depression


Nursing process the care of the patient with hiv aids assessment

Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with HIV/AIDS—Assessment

  • Assess physical and psychosocial status

  • Identify potential risk factors: IV drug abuse, risky sexual practices

  • Immune system function

  • Nutritional status

  • Skin integrity

  • Respiratory status neurologic status

  • Fluid and electrolyte balance

  • Knowledge level


Nursing process the care of the patient with hiv aids diagnosis

Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with HIV/AIDS- Diagnosis

  • Impaired skin integrity

  • Diarrhea

  • Risk for infection

  • Activity intolerance

  • Disturbed thought processes

  • Ineffective airway clearance

  • Pain

  • Imbalanced nutrition

  • Social isolation

  • Anticipatory grieving

  • Deficient knowledge


Collaborative problems potential complications

Collaborative Problems/Potential Complications

  • Opportunistic infections

  • Impaired breathing or respiratory failure

  • Wasting syndrome

  • Fluid and electrolyte imbalance

  • Adverse reaction to medication


Nursing process the care of the patient with hiv aids planning

Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with HIV/AIDS—Planning

  • Goals may include:

    • Achievement and maintenance of skin integrity

    • Resumption of usual bowel patterns

    • Absence of infection

    • Improved activity tolerance

    • Improved thought processes

    • Improved airway clearance

    • Increased comfort, improved nutritional status

    • Increased socialization

    • Expression of grief

    • Increased knowledge regarding disease prevention and self-care

    • Absence of complications


Skin integrity

Skin Integrity

  • Frequent routine assessment of skin and mucosa

  • Encourage patient to maintain balance between rest and activity

  • Reposition at least every 2 hours and as needed

  • Pressure reduction devices

  • Instruct patient to avoid scratching

  • Use gentle, nondrying soaps or cleansers

  • Avoid adhesive tape

  • Perianal skin care


Promoting usual bowel pattern

Promoting Usual Bowel Pattern

  • Assess bowel pattern and factors that may exacerbate diarrhea

  • Avoid foods that act as bowel irritants, such as raw fruits and vegetables, carbonated beverages, spicy foods, and foods of extreme temperatures

  • Small, frequent meals

  • Administer medications as prescribed

  • Assess and promote self-care strategies to control diarrhea


Activity intolerance

Activity Intolerance

  • Maintain balance between activity and rest

  • Instruction regarding energy conservation techniques

  • Relaxation measures

  • Collaboration with other members of the health care team


Maintaining thought processes

Maintaining Thought Processes

  • Assess mental and neurologic status

  • Use clear, simple language if mental status is altered

  • Establish and maintain a daily routine

  • Orientation techniques

  • Ensure patient safety and protect from injury

  • Strategies to maintain and improve functional ability

  • Instruct and involve family in communication and care


Nutrition

Nutrition

  • Monitor weight, I&O, dietary intake, and factors that interfere with nutrition

  • Dietary consult

  • Control of nausea with antiemetics

  • Oral hygiene

  • Treatment of oral discomfort

  • Dietary supplements

  • May require enteral feedings or parenteral nutrition


Decreasing isolation

Decreasing Isolation

  • Promote an atmosphere of acceptance and understanding

  • Assess social interactions and monitor behaviors

  • Allow patient to express feelings

  • Address psychosocial issues

  • Provide information related to the spread of infection

  • Educate ancillary personnel, family, and partners


Other interventions

Other Interventions

  • Improving airway clearance

    • Position in semi-Fowler's or high Fowler’s

    • Pulmonary therapy; coughing and deep breathing, postural drainage, percussion, and vibration

    • Ensure adequate rest

  • Pain

    • Medications as prescribed

    • Skin and perianal care


Question3

Question

What antiretroviral medication when taken with a high-fat/high-caloric meal increases peak plasma concentrations of capsules?

  • Delavirdine (Rescriptor)

  • Efavirenz (Sustiva)

  • Nevirapine (Viramune)


Answer3

Answer

B

The antiretroviral medication that when taken with a high- fat/high-caloric meal increases peak plasma concentrations of capsules is efavirenz (Sustiva).


Chapter 54 management of patients with autoimmune disorders

Chapter 54Management of Patients With Autoimmune Disorders

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Lupus

  • Scleroderma


Learning objectives2

Learning Objectives

  • Explain the pathophysiology of selected autoimmune disorders (diffuse connective tissue disease).

  • Describe the assessment and diagnostic findings that may be seen in patients with a suspected diagnosis of diffuse connective tissue disease.

  • Discuss appropriate nursing interventions based on nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems that commonly occur with diffuse connective tissue disease.

  • Describe the systemic effects of a diffuse connective tissue disease.

  • Identify modifications in interventions to accommodate changes in patients’ functional ability that may occur with disease progression.


Question4

Question

Is the following statement True or False?

Diarthrodial is bleeding into a joint.


Answer4

Answer

False

Diarthrodial is a joint with two freely movable parts. Hemarthrosis is bleeding into a joint.


Diffuse connective tissue diseases

Diffuse Connective Tissue Diseases

  • A group of chronic disorders characterized by diffuse inflammation and degeneration in the connective tissue

  • Cause is unknown but thought to have an immunologic basis

  • Characterized by a clinical course of exacerbations and remissions

  • Includes SLE, scleroderma, polymyositis, and polymyalgiarheumatica


Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • More than 100 different disorders

  • Affect primary the joints, but also muscles, bone, ligament, tendons, cartilage

  • Classification:

    • Monoarticular or polyarticular

    • Inflammatory or noninflammatory


Characteristic degenerative changes degradation

Characteristic Degenerative Changes— “Degradation”


Clinical manifestations

Clinical Manifestations

  • Pain

  • Joint swelling

  • Limited movement

  • Stiffness

  • Weakness

  • Fatigue


Pathophysiology and associated physical signs of rheumatoid arthritis

Pathophysiology and Associated Physical Signs of Rheumatoid Arthritis


Patient assessment and diagnostic findings

Patient Assessment and Diagnostic Findings

  • Health history: include onset of and evolution of symptoms, family history, past health history, and contributing factors

  • Functional assessment

  • Arthrocentesis

  • X-rays, bone scans, CTs, and MRIs

  • Tissue biopsy

  • Blood studies


Nursing interventions

Nursing Interventions

  • Understanding of the underlying disease process guide; the nurse’s critical thinking to provide interventions

  • The extent of the disease process, and whether it is localized or more systemic, will also affect nursing activities


Nursing process the care of the patient with a rheumatoid arthritis assessment

Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with a Rheumatoid Arthritis—Assessment

  • Health history and physical assessment focus on current and past symptoms, and also include the patient's psychological and mental status, social support systems, ability to participate in daily activities, comply with treatment regimen, and manage self-care


Nursing process the care of the patient with a rheumatoid arthritis diagnoses

Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with a Rheumatoid Arthritis—Diagnoses

  • Acute and chronic pain

  • Fatigue

  • Disturbed sleep pattern

  • Impaired physical mobility

  • Self-care deficits

  • Disturbed body image

  • Ineffective coping


Collaborative problems potential complications1

Collaborative Problems/Potential Complications

  • Adverse effects of medications


Nursing process the care of the patient with a rheumatoid arthritis planning

Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with a Rheumatoid Arthritis—Planning

  • Major goals may include:

    • Relief of pain and discomfort

    • Relief of fatigue

    • Promotion of restorative sleep

    • Increased mobility

    • Maintenance of self-care

    • Improved body image

    • Effective coping

    • Absence of complications


Question5

Question

With which of these diagnoses should the nurse encourage the patient to restrict consumption of foods high in purine?

  • Fibromyalgia

  • Gout

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Rheumatoid arthritis


Answer5

Answer

B

The nurse encourage the patient to restrict consumption of foods high in purine for gout.


Systemic lupus erythematosus sle

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

  • AKA Lupus

  • Incurable autoimmune disease

  • Cause is unknown

  • Affects 20-50:100,000 with an annual incidence of 1.6-7.6:100,000

  • Onset between the ages of 15 and 45

  • Women affected 8 times more often than men


Risk factors

Risk Factors

  • Exposure to certain viruses (e.g., Epstein-Barr virus)

  • Environmental factors (e.g., sunlight, thermal burns)

  • Genetic factors

  • Hormonal factors

  • Certain drugs have been shown to induce SLE

    • Hydralazine

    • Procainamide

    • Isoniazid

    • Chlorpromazine

    • Some anti-seizure medications


Signs and symptoms clinical presentation

Signs and Symptoms/Clinical Presentation

  • Musculoskeletal symptoms:

    • Arthralgia

    • Arthritis

    • Joint swelling and tenderness

    • Pain on movement

  • Cutaneous symptoms:

    • Malar (butterfly) rash (present in 50% of SLE)


Signs and symptoms clinical presentation1

Signs and Symptoms/Clinical Presentation


Teaching patients self care

Teaching Patients Self-Care

  • Explain the disease and principles of disease management

  • Medication teaching

  • Monitoring

  • Sources of information

  • Pain management

  • Joint protection

  • Self-care with assistive devices

  • Exercise and relaxation


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