Biology 364 – Animal Physiology
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Biology 364 – Animal Physiology. Instructor: Manuela Gardner Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology Course website (Manuela Gardner): www.zoology.ubc.ca/~gardner. Contact info. Manuela Gardner Office: Room 1370, Biological Sciences Bldg. Email: [email protected]

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Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

  • Instructor: Manuela Gardner

  • Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology

  • Course website (Manuela Gardner): www.zoology.ubc.ca/~gardner


Contact info

Manuela Gardner

Office: Room 1370, Biological Sciences Bldg.

Email: [email protected]

Office Hours: Fridays 1200-1300


Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

Respiratory System – uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxideCirculatory System –primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functionsIon and water regulation – deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen excretion


Grading and assessment

  • Marking Scheme

  • Problem sets: 30%

  • 1 per section (3 total)

    • These will be representative of questions given on the final exam.

  • Final: Open book/notes - 70%


  • Animal physiology definition
    Animal Physiology - definition

    • “The study of how animals work” – Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

    • Structure and function of various parts

      - How these parts work together


    Unifying themes in physiology table 1 1
    Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)

    • Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws

    • Physiological processes are usually regulated

      • Homeostasis – maintenance of internal constancy

    • Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment

      • Genotype – genetic makeup

      • Phenotype – expression of genotype in morphology, physiology, and behavior

      • Phenotypic plasticity – single genotype generates more than one phenotypic outcome depending on environmental conditions

    • Genotype is the product of evolution


    Unifying themes in physiology table 1 11
    Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)

    • Physical properties of a material are linked to function (e.g., bone)

    • Chemical laws govern molecular interactions (e.g., effects of temperature)

    • Electrical laws describe membrane function, including excitable cells

    • Body size influences biochemical and physical patterns – allometric scaling

    • Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws


    Unifying themes in physiology table 1 12
    Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)

    • Physiological processes are usually regulated

      • Homeostasis – maintenance of internal constancy

    How do animals deal with

    variations in their environment?


    Physiological regulation
    Physiological Regulation

    • Conformers

      • (a) Allow internal conditions to change when faced with variations in external conditions

      • (b) Internal environment adjusts to reflect external conditions


    Physiological regulation1
    Physiological Regulation

    Moyes and Schulte; Figure 1.4


    Physiological Regulation

    • Regulators

      • (a) Maintain relatively constant internal conditions regardless of the conditions in the external environment

      • (b) Keep internal environment within narrow limits


    Physiological Regulation - Homeostasis

    • Maintenance of internal conditions in the face of environmental perturbations

    • Controlled by feedback loops or reflex control pathways

      • Negative feedback loops

      • Positive feedback loops

    Figure 1.5


    Unifying themes in physiology table 1 13
    Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)

    • Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment

      • Genotype – genetic makeup

      • Phenotype – morphology, physiology, and behavior

      • Phenotypic plasticity – single genotype generates more than one phenotype depending on environmental conditions


    Phenotypic Plasticity

    • Can be irreversible or reversible

    • Irreversible

      • Polyphenism - developmental plasticity

    • Reversible

      • Acclimation - lab

      • Acclimatization – natural environment


    Unifying themes in physiology table 1 14
    Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)

    • Adaptation

      • Change in a population over evolutionary time (i.e. many generations)

      • Trait that confers an increase in reproductive success via natural selection

    • Genotype is the product of evolution


    Physiology and evolution

    • Physiologists attempt to understand and account for diversity of animal body form and strategies that animals use to cope with their environments

    • Two types of questions

    • Proximate cause – How?

    • Ultimate cause – Why?


    Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

    Respiratory System – uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxideCirculatory System –primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functionsIon and water regulation – deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen excretion


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