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Instructor: Manuela Gardner Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology

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Biology 364 – Animal Physiology. Instructor: Manuela Gardner Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology Course website (Manuela Gardner): www.zoology.ubc.ca/~gardner. Contact info. Manuela Gardner Office: Room 1370, Biological Sciences Bldg. Email: [email protected]

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slide1

Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

  • Instructor: Manuela Gardner
  • Textbook: Principles of Animal Physiology
  • Course website (Manuela Gardner): www.zoology.ubc.ca/~gardner
slide2

Contact info

Manuela Gardner

Office: Room 1370, Biological Sciences Bldg.

Email: [email protected]

Office Hours: Fridays 1200-1300

slide3

Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

Respiratory System – uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxideCirculatory System –primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functionsIon and water regulation – deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen excretion

slide4

Grading and assessment

  • Marking Scheme
  • Problem sets: 30%
  • 1 per section (3 total)
      • These will be representative of questions given on the final exam.
  • Final: Open book/notes - 70%
animal physiology definition
Animal Physiology - definition
  • “The study of how animals work” – Knut Schmidt-Nielsen
  • Structure and function of various parts

- How these parts work together

unifying themes in physiology table 1 1
Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)
  • Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws
  • Physiological processes are usually regulated
    • Homeostasis – maintenance of internal constancy
  • Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment
    • Genotype – genetic makeup
    • Phenotype – expression of genotype in morphology, physiology, and behavior
    • Phenotypic plasticity – single genotype generates more than one phenotypic outcome depending on environmental conditions
  • Genotype is the product of evolution
unifying themes in physiology table 1 11
Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)
  • Physical properties of a material are linked to function (e.g., bone)
  • Chemical laws govern molecular interactions (e.g., effects of temperature)
  • Electrical laws describe membrane function, including excitable cells
  • Body size influences biochemical and physical patterns – allometric scaling
  • Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws
unifying themes in physiology table 1 12
Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)
  • Physiological processes are usually regulated
    • Homeostasis – maintenance of internal constancy

How do animals deal with

variations in their environment?

physiological regulation
Physiological Regulation
  • Conformers
      • (a) Allow internal conditions to change when faced with variations in external conditions
      • (b) Internal environment adjusts to reflect external conditions
physiological regulation1
Physiological Regulation

Moyes and Schulte; Figure 1.4

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Physiological Regulation

  • Regulators
      • (a) Maintain relatively constant internal conditions regardless of the conditions in the external environment
      • (b) Keep internal environment within narrow limits
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Physiological Regulation - Homeostasis

  • Maintenance of internal conditions in the face of environmental perturbations
  • Controlled by feedback loops or reflex control pathways
    • Negative feedback loops
    • Positive feedback loops

Figure 1.5

unifying themes in physiology table 1 13
Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)
  • Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment
    • Genotype – genetic makeup
    • Phenotype – morphology, physiology, and behavior
    • Phenotypic plasticity – single genotype generates more than one phenotype depending on environmental conditions
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Phenotypic Plasticity

  • Can be irreversible or reversible
  • Irreversible
    • Polyphenism - developmental plasticity
  • Reversible
    • Acclimation - lab
    • Acclimatization – natural environment
unifying themes in physiology table 1 14
Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)
  • Adaptation
    • Change in a population over evolutionary time (i.e. many generations)
    • Trait that confers an increase in reproductive success via natural selection
  • Genotype is the product of evolution
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Physiology and evolution

  • Physiologists attempt to understand and account for diversity of animal body form and strategies that animals use to cope with their environments
  • Two types of questions
  • Proximate cause – How?
  • Ultimate cause – Why?
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Biology 364 – Animal Physiology

Respiratory System – uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxideCirculatory System –primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functionsIon and water regulation – deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen excretion

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