Asperger syndrome
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Asperger Syndrome. Andrea Freeman Seattle Pacific University Spring 2011 Educating Exceptional Students. What is Asperger Syndrome?.

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Asperger Syndrome

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Asperger syndrome

Asperger Syndrome

Andrea Freeman

Seattle Pacific University

Spring 2011

Educating Exceptional Students


What is asperger syndrome

What is Asperger Syndrome?

  • Definition-A “developmental disorder [neurobiological]characterized by normal cognitive and language development with impairments in all social areas, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, preoccupation with atypical activities or items, pedantic speech patterns, and motor clumsiness” (Heward, 2009, p.G-1).

  • Asperger Syndrome is part of the Autism Spectrum of disorders. The term “spectrum” means that no student has a disability within that spectrum that is exactly alike.


Asperger syndrome characteristics

Asperger Syndrome Characteristics

  • Language impairments- unable to understand figurative speech or inference(Harbinson & Alexander, 2009, p.11).

    • Example-idioms, metaphors, etc.

  • Perseverance- persistent/

    repetitive actions or activities

  • Social Issues:

    • Inappropriate social behavior

    • One-sided conversations

    • Unable to recognize social cues

  • Executive Function Issues

    • Memory

    • Organization

    • Planning

      (American Psychiatric Association, 2011)


  • Asperger syndrome helping students with as in social situations

    Asperger SyndromeHelping Students with AS in Social Situations


    Social behavior intervention

    Social/Behavior Intervention

    Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act (SODA)

    • Subjects:

      • Middle school student with AS (age 12 and had received previous social skills intervention, also showed that he could understand what others are thinking) and one nondisabled peer.

    • Intervention-SODA Strategy

      • Questions and statements scripted to help subject learn the meanings of S.O.D.A.

      • Subject reads S.O.D.A. story before activities, discusses it, subject goes to class (what to do and say during activity periods) with a plan.

      • Measured subjects participation in cooperative learning situations, playing games, and visiting at lunch.

    Bock, M.A. (2007). A social-behavioral learning strategy intervention for a child with asperger syndrome: Brief report. Remedial and Special Education. 28, 258-265.


    S o d a

    S.O.D.A.

    • SODA Intervention Guide

    • Intervention

      • S-Stop

        • Where should I go to observe?

        • What is the room arrangement?

        • What is the routine or schedule?

      • O-Observe

        • What is/are ___________doing?

        • What is/are___________saying?

        • What happens when ____________say(s) and do(es) these things?

      • D-Deliberate

        • What would I like to do?

        • What would I like to say?

        • How will _________feel when I do and say these things?

        • How will__________act when I do and say these things?

        • Why will __________act this way?

      • A-Act

        • When I go to _________ I plan to

          • (a)

          • (b)

    Bock, M.A. (2007). A social-behavioral learning strategy intervention for a child with asperger syndrome: Brief report. Remedial and Special Education. 28, 258-265.


    S o d a1

    S.O.D.A.

    • Results

      • Increase in participation levels (measured by sustained interaction without corrections).

      • Performance level was sustained over time

      • Generalizability likely only to other students with AS who “have learned how to understand the mental states of others” (Bock, 2007, p.263).

      • Bock believes the teens with AS will be more successful in social learning situation if S.O.D.A. is used as an intervention.

    Bock, M.A. (2007). A social-behavioral learning strategy intervention for a child with asperger syndrome: Brief report. Remedial and Special Education. 28, 258-265.


    Asperger syndrome helping students with as in social situations1

    Asperger SyndromeHelping Students with AS in Social Situations


    Social behavior intervention1

    Social/Behavior Intervention

    Social Stories and Video Modeling to help conversation

    • Students with AS struggle with specific social interactions, especially eye contact.

    • Subjects- single subject, 9 year old with AS

    • Intervention-looking for change in 2 out of 3 targeted conversation skills( eye contact, smiling, and initiations.

    Scattone, D. (2008). Enhancing the conversational skills of a boy with Asperger’s disorder through social stories and video modeling. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 38, pp. 395-400. DOI 10.1007/s10803-007-0392-2


    Social stories and video modeling to help conversation

    Social Stories and Video Modeling to help conversation

    • 3 stories designed, one for each skill

    • Each story included the previous skills (eye contact; eye contact and smiling; etc.)

    • Story narrated by video and adult (modeling)

    • 5 min. social interactions and lunch interactions were used to asses the targets using a checklist.

    Scattone, D. (2008). Enhancing the conversational skills of a boy with Asperger’s disorder through social stories and video modeling. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 38, pp. 395-400. DOI 10.1007/s10803-007-0392-2


    Social stories and video modeling

    Social stories and video modeling

    • Results-

      • 2 out of 3 conversation targets showed improvement, though the improvements were at different levels

      • It would be a good idea to include multiple stories with the same content so that the participant does not get bored.

      • It is suggested that further studies on combining social stories and modeling with videos should be conducted; in the past, clinics have used one or the other.

      • Also, generalizability is low because it is a single-subject study. Further study with multiple participants would be a way to further this research.

    Scattone, D. (2008). Enhancing the conversational skills of a boy with Asperger’s disorder through social stories and video modeling. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 38, pp. 395-400. DOI 10.1007/s10803-007-0392-2


    Asperger syndrome helping students with as in academic situations

    Asperger SyndromeHelping Students with AS in AcademicSituations


    Academic interventions

    Academic Interventions

    • Students with AS can become frustrated with writing that requires imagination. They find figurative language to be especially difficult.

    • Suggestions from Harbinson & Alexander (2009):

    • Treat each student with AS as an individual

    • Use small groups

    • Use structured writing frameworks

    Harbinson, H., & Alexander, J. (2009). Asperger syndrome and the English curriculum: Addressing the challenges. Support for learning. 24(1), pp.11-18.


    Highly structured writing

    Highly Structured Writing

    • “The most successful strategies to improve or enhance the understanding of children and adults with autism are those that focus on high levels of structure which in turn facilitates more appropriate social and communicative skills” (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009, p. 12). This is also true of students with AS. Structure in all areas can do a great deal to help them.

    • Study Focus: the use of structured writing activities for creative writing.

    Harbinson, H., & Alexander, J. (2009). Asperger syndrome and the English curriculum: Addressing the challenges. Support for learning. 24(1), pp.11-18.


    Highly structured writing1

    Highly structured writing

    • 12 students with ASD broken up into three groups and also observed individually.

    • 16 week period, preparing for end of course exams (Northern Ireland)

    • Used “a specially designed creative writing framework and an inferential reading scaffold (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009, p.14).

      • Grid with five sub-headings: Who? When? Where? What? Why? (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009, p.15)

      • Visual cues also used

      • Small group cooperative learning as well as individual work

    Harbinson, H., & Alexander, J. (2009). Asperger syndrome and the English curriculum: Addressing the challenges. Support for learning. 24(1), pp.11-18.


    Highly structured writing2

    Highly structured writing

    • Results-

      • Repeated use of the frameworks at home and at school yielded better results.

      • Small groups provided more support and showed more improvement than use of the frameworks with individuals

      • The help of the paraeducator played a role in the success of the intervention.

      • The writing itself still held characteristics of being “mechanical” and simplistic, but many of the students gained confidence and began to write more.

    • This intervention may not provide a marked effect on writing ability, but it does show that improvements were made in effort and in participation because of the organization and routine nature of the intervention.

    Harbinson, H., & Alexander, J. (2009). Asperger syndrome and the English curriculum: Addressing the challenges. Support for learning. 24(1), pp.11-18.


    Recommendations

    Recommendations

    • Planning situations and (Bock, 2007; Scattone, 2008).

    • Provide social guides for those situations (Bock, 2007; Scattone, 2008).

    • Practice social situations (Bock, 2007; Scattone, 2008).

    • Individualize interventions (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009)


    Recommendations1

    Recommendations

    • Use small groups (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009).

    • Use non-fiction as much as possible and practice non-fiction writing (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009).

    • Use visual cues as much as possible (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009).

    • Keep regular routines and organize all tasks (Harbinson & Alexander, 2009).

    • Visit OASIS for information about Asperger Syndrome.


    Pros and cons of inclusion for students with as

    Pros and Cons of Inclusion for students with AS

    • Pros-

      • Modeled social interactions

      • Practice in social situations

    • Cons-

      • Some subjects are going to be more difficult for students with AS. Those subjects that deal with inferential or imaginative thinking are going to be more of a challenge.

      • Each student with AS is going to be an individual. Inclusion will not be successful if there is a set group of interventions that are used without regard to the students individual needs.


    Applications

    Applications

    • It is possible in English, for example, to rely on the use of non-fiction texts as a modification, but some students will not make progress on interpreting fiction and using figurative language.

    • Practice interpreting the emotions and actions of characters in and English classroom can help them with their own social situations.

    • Use a classroom calendar on the board to help the students plan for future and current activities.

    • Have a meeting at the beginning of the year to discuss the students specific strengths and needs.

    • Create a clear plan for the paraeducator that outlines responsibilities and tasks.


    Applications1

    Applications

    • Use scaffolded frameworks for writing so that students with AS can be more specific and detailed in their writing. Use questions that ask for specific information. That may yield writing that is simplistic and mechanical, but it will be a way to increase effort and participation.

    • Repetition is important, as with the social stories and SODA scripts. This includes repeated tasks and information.

    • Capitalize on student interests (Wenzel & Rowley, 2010, p48).

    • Give positive feedback (this was shown to improve interactions of students with AS in the writing frameworks groups) (Wenzel & Rowley, 2010, p.48).

    • Provide visuals that go along with printed information. Handouts should include what is discussed so that the information is repeated.


    References

    References

    American Psychiatric Association. (2011). DSM-5 development: Asperger’s disorder. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevisions/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=97#

    Bock, M.A. (2007). A social-behavioral learning strategy intervention for a child with asperger syndrome: Brief report. Remedial and Special Education. 28, 258-265.

    Harbinson, H., & Alexander, J. (2009). Asperger syndrome and the English curriculum: Addressing the challenges. Support for Learning. 24 (1), 11-18.

    Heward, W.L. (2009). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. 9th Ed. Merrill: Upper Saddle River, N.J.

    Klardrommar. (2010). Day 1/365. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/kervintran/5143040381/sizes/m/in/photostream/

    Liz(perspicacious.org). (2009). Leveled classroom library. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/perspicacious/3840318596/sizes/z/in/photostream/

    Online Asperger Syndrome Information and Support (OASIS). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.aspergersyndrome.org/Home.aspx

    Scattone, D. (2008). Enhancing the conversational skills of a boy with Asperger’s disorder through social stories and video modeling. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 38, pp. 395-400. DOI 10.1007/s10803-007-0392-2

    Surran, M. (2001). Students taking a computerized exam. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/extraketchup/748443511/in/photostream/

    Tuchodi (2007). Relationships/community. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/tuchodi/520066716/sizes/m/in/photostream/

    Texas Statewide Leadership for Autism. (2009).Target: Texas guide for effective teaching stop‐observe‐deliberate‐act (SODA) . Retrieved from http://www.txautism.net/docs/Guide/Interventions/SODA.pdf

    U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/%2Croot%2Cregs%2C300%2CA%2C300%252E8%2Cc%2C

    Wenzel, C., & Rowley, L. (2010). Teaching social skills and academic strategies to college students with Asperger’s syndrome. Teaching exceptional children.42(5), pp.44-50.


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