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9 leadership


Groups generally require guidance as they strive to reach their goals, and the individual who coordinates and motivates the group can fundamentally shape the group’s future. If asked, “What one thing would you change to turn an inept group into a productive one?” most people would answer, “The leader.”

  • What is leadership?

  • Who will emerge as a leader?

  • Who do some lead and others follow?

  • Why do some leaders succeed and others fail?

James MacGregor Burns writes:

Leadership is “one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth”

But much of the mystery of leadership evaporates when studied in terms of groups and their dynamics.

The t r model
The T-R Model

  • What Do Leaders Do?

The lbdq

Researchers at Ohio State built these two dimensions into their Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ).

The relationship between task-oriented leadership (structuring), relational leadership (support), and various leadership outcomes.

Leadership substitutes theory
Leadership Substitutes Theory

  • Characteristics of the Organization

  • Task Characteristics

  • Group Member Characteristics

  • Has a need for independence

  • Has “profes-sional orientation”

  • Is indifferent to group rewards

  • Is intrin-sicallysatis-fying

  • Closely knit, cohesive workgroups

  • Organizational rewards not within the leader’s control

  • Spatial distance between superior and subordinate

  • Has ability, experience, training, knowledge

  • Is unambiguous and routine

  • Is methodological-ly invariant

  • Provides it own feedback concerning accomplishment

  • Formalized (explicit plans, goals, and areas of responsibility)

  • Inflexible (rigid, unbending rules and procedures)

  • Highly specified with active advisory and staff functions

  • What Do Leaders Do?

Will Neutralize Task Leadership

Will Neutralize Relationship Leadership

Men, Women, and Leadership

Men: Task Leaders

Women: Relationship Leaders

This difference between men and women is only a tendency; it does manifest itself across all group situations

  • What Do Leaders Do?

Assigns tasks to members

Makes attitudes clear to the group

Critical of poor work

Sees to it that the group is working to capacity

Coordinates activity

Listens to group members

Easy to understand

Friendly and approachable

Treats group members as equals

Willing to make changes

  • Leadership Emergence

  • Theories of Leadership Emergence

  • Leadership Effectiveness

Why Do Some Lead and Others Follow?

  • Who Will Lead?

  • Personality

The history of the world is but the biography of great men.



  • Competencies

Thomas Carlyle’s Great Man Theory

  • Participation

From War and Peace:

The people of the west moved eastwards to slay their fellow men, and by the law of coincidence thousands of minute causes fitted in and coordinated to produce that movement and war: …A king is history's slave.

  • The Leader’s Look

Zeitgeist Theory

Note: Except for Abraham Lincoln, who Tolstoy believed was a great man: “The greatness of Napoleon, Caesar or Washington is only moonlight by the sun of Lincoln.

Five factor model and leadership
Five Factor Model and Leadership

  • Personality

People who speak more in groups are likely to emerge as leaders (the babble effect), although work by Jones and Kelly suggests that quality of comments is more influential than sheer quantity.

  • Participation

  • Leadership Emergence

  • Theories of Leadership Emergence

  • Leadership Effectiveness

  • Implicit Leadership

  • Implicit Leadership Theory (ILTs)

  • Social Identity

  • Social Role

  • Terror Management

  • Evolutionary

  • Lord’s implicit leadership theory: Followers’ beliefs about what qualities they expect in a leader—their implicit leadership theories—influence their perceptual and cognitive reactions to leaders and potential leaders.

The Prototype Matching Hypothesis leaders (

  • Implicit Leadership Theory (ILTs)

  • The prototype matching hypothesis suggests that individuals prefer leaders who match their ILTs, but ILTs can distort members’ perceptions of and reactions to their leaders.

Globe study of leadership
GLOBE study of leadership leaders (

Cross-cultural analyses of leadership

Administratively Competent

Orderly Administrative Skilled


Good Administrator

Decisive *





Team I: Collaborative Team *





Team II: Team Integrator *


Team Builder



Charismatic I:





Plans Ahead *

Charismatic II:




Morale Booster

Motive Arouser





Win-win Problem solver

Effective Bargainer

Humane *Orientation



Integrity *





Performance Oriented *








  • Agency (and autonomy) leaders (

  • Forceful

  • Task-focused

  • Makes Decisions Easily

  • Dominant

  • Individualistic

  • Ambitious

  • Communal

  • Cheerful

  • Supportive

  • Sympathetic

  • Tender

  • Sensitive to others needs

  • Understanding

  • Social Role Theory

As Eagly and others note, these two sides of leadership correspond to sex role expectances

Before evaluating these candidates, participants in the mortality-salience condition were reminded of their eventual demise.

The task-oriented leader was the most favorably rated in both conditions . But the charismatic leader was rated more positive when mortality was salient.

  • Terror Management Theory

  • Basics mortality-salience condition were reminded of their eventual

    • Survival of the fittest

    • Sexual selection

  • Leaders are useful in social species

    • Leaders help followers survive, thrive

    • Tribes with leaders are more “fit”

  • Results

    • People readily recognize leaders

    • Leadership is a resilient cultural feature

    • Leadership has rewards to offset costs

  • Evolutionary

Van vugt spisak 2008 suggest that the instinct to seek a male leader is tuned to the situation
Van Vugt & mortality-salience condition were reminded of their eventual Spisak, 2008, suggest that the “instinct” to seek a male leader is tuned to the situation

If women are thought to be superior to men at maintaining group harmony

If men are thought to be better during conflict with other groups


Women will be preferred as leaders during times of intragroup competition (and conflict)

Men will be preferred if there is trouble with another group (intergroup)

  • Leadership Emergence

  • Theories of Leadership Emergence

  • Leadership Effectiveness

  • Fiedler’s Contingency

Leadership effectiveness depends on (is “contingent on”) both the person and the situation

  • Style Theories

Fiedler measured task motivation with his well-known “Least Preferred Co-worker Scale”.

Think of a person with whom you can work least well. He or she may be someone you work with now or someone you knew in the past. This coworker does not have to be the person you like least but should be the person with whom you had the most difficulty in getting a job done.

  • LMX

Fred Fiedler’s contingency theory includes 1 “person” variable (leadership motivation, which is task vs. relational) and 3 situational variables (that combine to determine situational favorability)

  • Participation

  • Transform-ational

  • The Future of Leadership

In moderate situations, the correlation between LPC and Effectiveness is POSITIVE

In highly favorable or highly unfavorable situations, the correlation between LPC and Effectiveness is NEGATIVE

  • Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

High LPC leaders most effective in “moderately” favorable situations

Low LPC leaders most effective in very favorable or very unfavorable situations

Leadership effectiveness depends on the leader’s “style”—some styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to situation is also important.

  • Style Theories

Blake and Mouton’s “leadership grid” theory

Leadership effectiveness depends on the leader’s “style”—some styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to situation is also important.

  • The situational leadership theory, proposed by Hersey and Blanchard, suggests that groups benefit from leadership that meshes with the developmental stage of the group.

  • Style Theories

E “style”—some styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to situation is also important.












Leader–member exchange theory (LMX) focuses on the dyadic relationship linking the leader to each member of the group and notes that, in many cases, two subgroups of linkages exist (the inner group and the outer group). Groups with more inner-group members are more productive.

Outer group

Inner group

  • LMX: Leader Member Exchange Theory


  • Participation Theories “style”—some styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to situation is also important.

Transformational theories of leadership examine how charismatic leaders promote change.Burns distinguished between transactional leaders and transformational leaders and suggested that the latter are able to elevate both themselves and their followers.

  • Transformational Leadership Theories

Bass s transactional transformational distinction
Bass’s transactional-transformational distinction charismatic leaders promote change.

Transactional Leadership

  • Leaders treat their relationships with followers as a transaction: define expectations and offer rewards, some sort of exchange

  • Contingent rewards: if a follower produces the desired behavior, she will receive the contracted award (positive and negative)

    Transformational Leadership

  • Idealized influence

  • Inspirational motivation

  • Intellectual stimulation

  • Individualized consideration

Women tend to adopt participative and transformational styles of leadership, whereas men are more likely to enact autocratic, laissez-faire, and transactional styles. Women’s skills are particularly well suited for organizations of the future, which will be less hierarchical and require a collaborative, shared approach to leadership.

  • The Future of Leadership