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Endocrine System. Medical Terminology Chapter 17. Function.

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Endocrine system

Endocrine System

Medical Terminology

Chapter 17

Medical Terminology


Function
Function

  • The endocrine system cooperates with the nervous system to regulate body activities. This is accomplished by endocrine hormones that affect various processes throughout the body, such as growth, metabolism, and secretions from other organs.

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology
Anatomy and Physiology

  • The endocrine and nervous systems work together to maintain homeostasis

  • Homeostasis is a relative constancy in the internal environment of the body

  • Nervous system communicates with the endocrine system through nerve impulses.

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology1
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Endo – inside

  • Crine – to secrete

  • Endocrine System composed of :

    • Many glands scattered throughout the body

    • Glands secrete hormones (chemicals) into the blood stream

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology2
Anatomy and Physiology

  • A gland is an organ that has specialized cells that secrete or excrete substances that are not related to the gland’s ordinary metabolism

  • Endocrine

  • Secrete hormones into the bloodstream

  • Exocrine

  • Have ducts that enable them to empty secretions onto an internal body surface (sweat gland)

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology3
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Dysfunction in hormone production

  • Hypersecretion

  • Excess secretion

  • Hyposecretion

  • Deficiency in secretion

  • Target organ

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology4
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Hormones

  • Proteins

  • Steroids

    • Sex hormones

    • Those secreted by the adrenal cortex

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology5
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Location of endocrine glands

  • Pituitary gland (Hypophysis)

    • Base of the brain

  • Adrenal gland

    • Above the two kidneys (suprarenal)

  • Ovaries and testes

    • Pelvic region

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology6
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Location of endocrine glands (cont.)

  • Pineal gland (shaped like a pine cone)

    • Posterior part of the brain

  • Thyroid

    • Front of the neck

  • Parathyroid

    • Embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

  • Pancreas (Islet of Langerhans)

    • ULQ abdomen

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology key word parts
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts

  • Aden(o)

  • Gland

  • Adren(o), adrenal(o)

  • Adrenal gland

  • Gonad(o)

  • Gonad

  • Mamm(o), mast(o)

  • Breast

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology key word parts1
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts

  • Pancreat(o)

  • Pancreas

  • Parathyriod(o)

  • Parathyroid glands

  • Pituitar(o)

  • Pituitary gland

  • Thyr(o), thyroid(o)

  • Thyroid gland

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology key word parts2
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts

  • Andr(o)

  • Male or masculine

  • Calc(i)

  • Calcium

  • Gigant(o)

  • Large

  • Gluc(o)

  • Glucose

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology key word parts3
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts

  • Glyc(o), glycos(o)

  • Sugar

  • Insulin(o)

  • Insulin

  • Iod(o)

  • Iodine

  • Ket(o)

  • Ketone

  • Lact(o)

  • Milk

  • Trop(o)

  • To stimulate

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology key word parts4
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts

  • -crine

  • Secrete

  • -dipsia

  • Thirst

  • -physis

  • Growth

  • -tropic

  • Stimulating

  • -tropin

  • That which stimulates

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology7
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Pituitary

  • Supplies numerous hormones that act directly on cells or stimulates other glands that govern many vital processes.

  • Hypophysis cerebri (under the cerebrum)

  • Some hormones released in response to the nervous system

  • Many endocrine glands respond to hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

  • The Master Gland

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology8
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Posterior pituitary

    • Neurohypophysis

    • Hormones stored in axon endings and are released when a nerve impulse travels down the axon

  • Anterior pituitary

    • Adenohypophysis

    • Release of hormones is controlled by regulating hormones produced by the hypothalamus

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology9
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Posterior pituitary hormones

    • Kidneys

    • Breasts

    • Uterus

  • Anterior pituitary hormones

    • Many hormones, several of which act on other endocrine glands causing them to secrete hormones

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology10
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Hypothalamus (Neurohypophysis)

  • Plays an important role in hormonal regulation

  • Antidiuretic hormone

  • Oxytocin

  • Synthesized in the hypothalamus

  • Transported to the neurohypophysis for storage

  • Released through nervous stimulation

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology11
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Antidiuretic hormone

  • Affects the volume of urine secreted

  • Acts on the kidneys to reabsorb water from the urine, producing concentrated urine

  • Absence of this hormone results in passage of large amounts of dilute urine

  • Tea, coffee, and water act as diuretics

  • Diuretics prescribed for people with edema

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology12
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Oxytocin

  • Released in large quantities just before a female gives birth

  • Causes uterine contractions

  • Acts on mammary glands to stimulate the release of milk

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology13
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Adenohypophysis

  • Regulated by the hypothalamus which produces regulatory and inhibitory hormones which stimulate or inhibit the secretion of hormones

  • Hormones travel through the bloodstream and bring about changes in other organs, often another endocrine gland

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology14
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Growth hormone (GH), Somatotropin (STH)

    • Stimulates body growth

  • Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)

    • Promotes pigmentation and controls the amount of melanin produced

  • Lactogenic Hormone (LTH), prolactin

    • Causes milk production by the mammary glands

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology15
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Gonadotropic hormones

    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • Lutenizing hormone (LH)

  • Stimulate the ovaries and testes

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology16
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Adrenal gland – medulla

    • Receives direct nervous stimulation

  • Adrenal gland – cortex

    • Stimulated by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) brought by the circulating blood

  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin

    • Causes the glandular cells of the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology17
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Thyroid

  • Regulates body metabolism, normal growth and development, and the storage of calcium in bone tissue

  • Thyroxine, T4

  • Triiodothyronine, T3

    • Synthesized by the thyroid using iodine

  • Thyrocalcitonin (TCT), calcitonin

  • Homeostasis of the blood calcium level

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology18
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Mammary glands

  • Milk producing glands of the breast

  • Each breast contains 15 to 20 lobes of glandular tissue that surround the nipple

  • Lactogenesis

    • Production of milk

  • Lactation

    • Secretion or ejecting of milk

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology19
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Tactile stimulation of the nipple

  • Impulses from the nipple go to the hypothalamus

  • Hypothalamus stimulates the release of oxytocin by the pituitary gland

  • Causes contractions that eject milk from the breast

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology20
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Gonadotropic

  • Stimulating the gonads

  • FSH

    • Stimulates the ovaries to secrete estrogen and acts on the follicle

    • Stimulates the production of sperm in the testes

  • LH

    • Stimulates ovulation and production of progesterone in the female ovary

    • promotes the growth of the interstitial cells of the testes and the secretion of testosterone

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology21
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Reproduction becomes possible during puberty

  • Onset is triggered by the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary

  • Male sex hormones, androgens (mostly testosterone)

  • Ovaries

    • Estrogen

  • Testes

    • Testosterone

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology22
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Adrenal glands

  • Outer cortex

    • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

    • Glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone)

    • Androgens and estrogens

  • Inner medulla

    • Epinephrine

    • Norepinephrine

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology23
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Mineralocorticoids

    • Increases water retention by changing sodium and potassium reabsorption in the kidney tubules

  • Glucocorticoids

    • Increases blood glucose levels; inhibits inflammation and the immune response

  • Androgens and estrogens

    • Secreted in small amounts that the effect is generally masked by ovarian and testicular hormones

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology24
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Andr(o)

  • Male or masculine

  • Androgenic

  • Producing masculine characteristics

  • Masculine characteristics in females may become apparent after menopause

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology25
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Adrenal Medulla

  • Epinephrine (adrenaline)

    • Stimulates the heart

  • Norepinephrine

    • Blood vessel constrict

  • Together they prepare the body for strenuous activity

  • Fight or flight hormones

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology26
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Pineal gland

  • Exact functions have not been established

  • Evidence that it secretes melatonin

  • Diminishes around the age of 7

  • Melatonin

    • Regulatory function in sexual development

    • Influence the sleepiness/wakefulness cycle and mood

    • Decrease in skin pigmentation

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology27
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Homeostasis

  • Direct nervous stimulation

    • Adrenal medulla

  • Secretion of hormones in response to other hormones

    • TSH from anterior pituitary causes the thyroid to secrete thyroid hormones

  • A negative feedback mechanism

    • Interaction between pancreatic hormones and the concentration of glucose in the blood

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology28
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Pancreas

  • Exocrine

  • Secretes digestive enzymes that are carried through a duct to the duodenum

  • Endocrine

  • Secretes hormones into the blood

    • Glucagon

    • Insulin

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology29
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Glucagon

    • Increase blood glucose levels

    • Secreted in response to a low concentration of glucose in the blood

    • Prevents hypoglycemia (less then normal amount of sugar in the blood

  • Insulin

    • Promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose for energy

    • Secreted in response to a high concentration of glucose in the blood

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology30
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Parathyroid

    • Secretes parathyroid hormone

    • Increases blood calcium levels

    • Antagonistic to calcitonin secreted by the thyroid gland

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology31
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Stomach

    • Gastrin

    • Pepsin

  • Small intestines

    • Stimulate the pancreas and gallbladder

  • Thymus

    • Thymosin

  • Heart

    • Atria produces atriopeptin

  • Placenta

    • HCG, estrogen, progesterone

Medical Terminology


Anatomy and physiology32
Anatomy and Physiology

  • Prostaglandins

  • Localized, immediate, and short term effect on or near the cells where they are produced

    • Smooth muscle contractions

    • Involvement in blood clotting

    • Many aspects of pain and fever

Medical Terminology


Diagnostic tests and procedures
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  • Palpation

  • Only thyroid and male gonads can be palpated

  • Assessed for:

    • Enlargement

    • Bulging

    • Difference in size

    • Checked for masses

Medical Terminology


Diagnostic tests and procedures1
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  • Physical indications of endocrine disorders

    • Unusually tall or short stature

    • Coarseness of facial features

    • Edema

    • Hair loss

    • Excessive facial hair in females

Medical Terminology


Diagnostic tests and procedures2
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  • Laboratory studies

  • Urine tests

  • Blood tests

    • Growth hormone

    • Gonadotropins (FSH and LH)

    • Other hormones

Medical Terminology


Diagnostic tests and procedures3
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  • MRI

  • Identify tumors involving the pituitary gland or hypothalamus

  • Thyroid function

    • TSH

    • Thyroxine

    • T3

    • Radioactive iodine uptake

    • Thyroid scans

Medical Terminology


Diagnostic tests and procedures4
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  • Parathyroid

    • PTH

    • Calcium

    • Phosphate

    • ACTH

  • Computed Tomography (CT)

    • Tumors of adrenal gland

Medical Terminology


Diagnostic tests and procedures5
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  • Pancreatic function

  • Blood tests

    • Fasting blood sugar (FBS)

    • Glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1C

    • Oral glucose tolerance test

  • Urine tests

    • Sugar – glycosuria

    • Ketones – ketonuria

Medical Terminology


Diagnostic tests and procedures6
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

  • Computed Tomography (CT)

  • To identify pancreatic tumors or cysts

  • Breasts

    • Self breast examination

    • Mammography

    • Mammogram

Medical Terminology


Pathologies
Pathologies

  • Adenopathy

  • Any disease of a gland

  • Pituitary dysfunction

    • Hyposecretion

    • Hypersecretion

Medical Terminology


Pathologies1
Pathologies

  • Diabetes insipidus

    • Deficiency of ADH

    • Polyuria

    • Polydipsia

  • Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

  • Usually develops in association with other diseases

Medical Terminology


Pathologies2
Pathologies

  • Hypopituitarism

  • Decreased activity of the pituitary gland

  • Deficient in one or more pituitary hormones

  • Insufficient growth hormone in childhood

  • Dwarfism

  • Deficiency in somatotropin

  • Pituitary dwarfism

Medical Terminology


Pathologies3
Pathologies

  • Adult atrophy of the pituitary gland

  • State of ill health

  • Malnutrition

  • Wasting (pituitary cachexia)

  • Hyperpituitarism

  • Increased pituitary activity

Medical Terminology


Pathologies4
Pathologies

  • Overproduction of growth hormone during childhood

  • Gigantism

  • Hypersecretion of somatotropin

  • Pituitary gigantism

  • Adult excessive growth hormone

  • Acromegaly

  • Enlargement of the extremities

Medical Terminology


Pathologies5
Pathologies

  • Thyropathy

  • Any disease of the thyroid gland

  • Inflammation

  • Enlargement

  • Hyposecretion

  • Hypersecretion

Medical Terminology


Pathologies6
Pathologies

  • Thyroiditis

  • Inflammation of the thyroid

  • Hyperthyroidism

    • Excitable, nervous

    • Moist skin

    • Rapid pulse

    • Increased metabolic rate

    • Weight loss

    • Exophthalmos

Medical Terminology


Pathologies7
Pathologies

  • Graves’ disease

    • Hyperthyroidism

    • Exophthalmos

    • Goiter

  • Thyrotoxicosis (Thyroid storm)

    • Fever

    • Fast pulse

    • Hypertension

    • Gastrointestinal symptoms

    • Agitation

    • Anxiety

Medical Terminology


Pathologies8
Pathologies

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Decreased activity of the thyroid gland

    • Childhood (Cretinism)

    • Arrested physical and mental development

  • Myxedema

    • Adult hyposecretion of thyroxin and T3

    • Water retention

    • Edema

Medical Terminology


Pathologies9
Pathologies

  • Hypoparathyroidism

    • Below normal level of parathyroid function

    • Hypocalcemia

  • Hyperparathyroidism

    • Abnormally increased activity of the parathyroid

    • Hypercalcemia

Medical Terminology


Pathologies10
Pathologies

  • Hypogonadism

  • Decreased functional activity of the gonads

  • Adrenopathy

  • Any disease of the adrenals

  • Adrenomegaly

  • Enlargement of one or both adrenals

Medical Terminology


Pathologies11
Pathologies

  • Hyperadrenalism

  • Increased secretory activity of the adrenals

  • Cushing’s syndrome – hyper secretion of the adrenal cortex

    • Increased blood glucose levels

    • Edema

    • Masculinization in female individuals

Medical Terminology


Pathologies12
Pathologies

  • Hypersecretion of androgens or estrogens before puberty

  • Androgenital syndrome

  • Males

    • Rapid onset of puberty and sex drive

  • Females

    • Masculine distribution of body hair develops and the clitoris enlarges and takes on the appearance of a penis

Medical Terminology


Pathologies13
Pathologies

  • Hirsutism

  • Excessive growth and male distribution of body hair in the female

  • Andropathy

  • Any disease peculiar to the male gender

  • Gynecomastia

  • Excessive growth of male mammary glands

Medical Terminology


Pathologies14
Pathologies

  • Hypoadrenalism

  • Decreased adrenal activity

  • Hyposecretion

  • No significant effect

  • Hypersecretion

  • Continued fight or flight mode

Medical Terminology


Pathologies15
Pathologies

  • Addison’s disease

  • Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex

    • Dehydration

    • Low blood glucose levels

    • Bronzing of the skin

    • General ill health

Medical Terminology


Pathologies16
Pathologies

  • Pancreatic cancer

  • Pancreatitis

  • Inflammation of the pancreas

  • Hypoinsulinism

  • Deficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas

Medical Terminology


Pathologies17
Pathologies

  • Diabetes Mellitus

    • Resistance to insulin

    • Deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Greater than normal blood glucose level

    • Polyphagia

    • Polyuria

    • Polydipsia

Medical Terminology


Pathologies18
Pathologies

  • Diabetes Mellitus

    • Type I

    • Type 2

    • Gestational

Medical Terminology


Pathologies19
Pathologies

  • Type I

    • Genetically determined

    • Absolute insulin deficiency

  • Type 2

    • Genetic and environmental contributing factors

    • Aging, obesity

  • Gestational

    • Recognized during pregnancy

    • Disappears after birth

Medical Terminology


Pathologies20
Pathologies

  • Complications of Diabetes

  • Diabetic neuropathy

  • Heart disease

  • Diabetic nephropathy

  • Diabetic retinopathy

  • Peripheral vascular disease

Medical Terminology


Pathologies21
Pathologies

  • Hyperinsulinism

  • Excessive insulin in the blood

  • Hyperinsulinism results in hypoglycemia

  • Hypoglycemia

  • Below normal blood glucose level

Medical Terminology


Pathologies22
Pathologies

  • Mammalgia

  • Mastodynia

  • Mastalgia

  • Breast pain

  • Fibrocystic breast disease

  • Single or multiple benign cysts

  • Mastocarcinoma – Breast cancer

  • The most common cancer among women in the U.S.

Medical Terminology


Pathologies23
Pathologies

  • Mastitis

  • Inflammatory condition of the breasts

  • Occurs frequently in lactating women

  • Typically bacterial infection

  • If untreated an abscess may develop

Medical Terminology


Surgical therapeutic interventions
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions

  • Pituitary tumor

  • Surgery

  • Radiation

  • Administration of deficient hormones

  • Hyperthyroidism

  • Surgery

  • Radioactive materials

  • Antithyroid drugs

Medical Terminology


Surgical therapeutic interventions1
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions

  • Adrenalectomy

  • Excision of an adrenal gland

Medical Terminology


Surgical therapeutic interventions2
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions

  • Diabetes Treatment

  • Administration of insulin or oral agents

    • Subcutaneous injection

    • Insulin pump

  • Proper diet

  • Exercise

Medical Terminology


Surgical therapeutic interventions3
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions

  • Hypoglycemia

    • Administration of glucose

  • Breast cancer

    • Lumpectomy

    • Radiation therapy

    • Chemotherapy

    • Hormone manipulation

    • Mastectomy (surgical removal of the breast)

Medical Terminology


Surgical therapeutic interventions4
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions

  • Mastoptsosis

  • Sagging or prolapsed breasts

  • Mastopexy

  • Surgery to correct pendulous breasts (breast lift)

  • Mammoplasty

  • Plastic surgery of the breast

    • Augmentation mammoplasty

    • Reduction mammoplasty

Medical Terminology


Class exercises

Class Exercises

Chapter 17

Medical Terminology


Define the terms
Define the Terms

  • Aden(o)

  • Gland

  • Hypercalcemia

  • Increase blood calcium

  • Goiter

  • Enlarged thyroid

  • Gonad(o)

  • Ovaries, testes

Medical Terminology


Define the terms1
Define the Terms

  • Trop(o)

  • To stimulate

  • Mast(o)

  • Breast

  • Lact(o)

  • Milk

  • Ex(o)

  • Outside

Medical Terminology


Define the terms2
Define the Terms

  • End(o)

  • Inside

  • -crine

  • To secrete

  • Tetra-

  • Four

  • Home(o)

  • Sameness, constant

Medical Terminology


Write the meaning for
Write the Meaning For

  • Thry(o)

  • Thyroid gland

  • Tetra-

  • Four

  • Mast/o

  • Breast

  • Pro-

  • Before or for

Medical Terminology


Write the meaning for1
Write the Meaning For

  • Mamm/o

  • Breast

  • Andr/o

  • Male or masculine

  • Exo-

  • Outside or outward

  • Adren/o

  • Adrenal gland

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following
Give Definitions for the Following

  • Adrenalin?o

  • Adrenalin

  • -tropic

  • Stimulates

  • -tropin

  • That which stimulates

  • -physis

  • growth

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following1
Give Definitions for the Following

  • Iod/o

  • Iodine

  • Gigant/o

  • Large

  • Megal/o

  • Large

  • Macr/o

  • Large

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following2
Give Definitions for the Following

  • Gonad/o

  • Gonad

  • Home/o

  • Sameness

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Andromegaly

  • Enlargement of the adrenal glands

  • Androgenic

  • Producing masculine characteristics

  • Homeostasis

  • Stability in the normal body state

  • Periadenitis

  • Inflammation of tissues around a gland

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms1
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Gonadal

  • Pertaining to the ovaries or testes

  • Hypercalcemia

  • Excessive calcium in the blood

  • Hypothryoidism

  • Decreased activity of the thyroid gland

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms2
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Enlargement of the adrenal glands

  • Adrenomegaly

  • Producing masculine characteristics

  • Androgenic

  • Stability in the normal body state

  • Homeostasis

  • Inflammation of the tissues around a gland

  • Periadenitis

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms3
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Decreased activity of the thyroid gland

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Excessive calcium in the blood

  • Hypercalcemia

  • Pertaining to the ovaries and testes

  • Gonadal

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms4
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Mastopexy

  • Surgical correction of pendulous breasts

  • Exophthalmos

  • Abnormal protrusions of the eyeball

  • Periadentitis

  • Inflammation of tissues around a gland

  • Homeostasis

  • Stability of the internal functions of the body

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms5
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Pancreas

  • The gland where insulin is produced

  • Gonadectomy

  • Excision of the ovaries or testes

  • Hypogonadism

  • Decreased functional activity of the gonads

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms6
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Diabetes mellitus

  • A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria

  • Cachexia

  • A condition of ill health, malnutrition and wasting

  • Colostrum

  • The cloudy fluid secreted by the mammary gland that serves as a reservoir for milk

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms7
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Duct

  • The dilated portion of a vessel in the mammary gland that serves as a reservoir for milk

  • Periappendicitis

  • Inflamed condition of the appendix and its surrounding tissues

  • Gynecomastia

  • Excessive development of the male breasts

Medical Terminology


Write definitions for the following terms8
Write Definitions for the following Terms

  • Fibrocystic breast disease

  • A disorder characterized by single or multiple benign tumors of the breast

  • Glands

  • Structures that have the ability to manufacture chemical substances that are discharged and used in some other part of the body

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following terms
Give Definitions for the Following Terms

  • Lactation

  • Secretion of milk

  • Mammogram

  • Film produced in a diagnostic procedure that uses x ray to study the breast

  • Augmentation mammoplasty

  • Plastic surgery to increase the size of the breast

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following terms1
Give Definitions for the Following Terms

  • Mastectomy

  • Removal of a breast

  • Target gland/organ

  • The organ or structure towards which the effects of a hormone are directed

  • Goiter

  • An enlarged thyroid

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following terms2
Give Definitions for the Following Terms

  • Lactogenesis

  • Production of milk

  • Androgenic

  • Producing masculine characteristics

  • Diuretic pertains to increasing urination

  • Exocrine

  • Gland that has ducts and empties its secretions onto an internal or external surface

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following terms3
Give Definitions for the Following Terms

  • Hormones

  • The chemical secretions of endocrine glands

  • Pituitary

  • The master gland

  • Oxytocin

  • A pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejection

Medical Terminology


Give definitions for the following terms4
Give Definitions for the Following Terms

  • Mammalgia or mastodynia

  • Painful breast

  • Hirsutism

  • Abnormal hairiness

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms
Define the Following Terms

  • Hepatitis

  • Inflammation of the liver

  • Pericerebral

  • Around the rain

  • Peripancreatitis

  • Inflammation around the pancreas

  • Mastoptosis

  • Sagging breasts

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms1
Define the Following Terms

  • Thyroid

  • Gland secretes thyroid hormones

  • Thyrotropin

  • Stimulates the synthesis and secretions of thyroxine

  • Thyroxine

  • Iodine containing hormone secreted by thyroid gland

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms2
Define the Following Terms

  • Cachexia

  • General ill health and malnutrition, marked by weakness and emaciation or excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition

  • Hypopituitarism

  • Decreased activity of the pituitary gland

  • Hormones

  • Come from endocrine glands secreted into the blood stream

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms3
Define the Following Terms

  • -physis

  • Suffix means growth

  • Pro-

  • Prefix means before

  • Adrenal glands

  • Located above each kidney secretes steroids epinephrine and norepinephrine

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms4
Define the Following Terms

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Above normal blood sugar

  • Glycosuria

  • Sugar in urine

  • Polydipsia

  • Excessive thirst

  • Polyuria

  • Frequent urination

  • Hyperinsulinism

  • Excessive insulin in the blood

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms5
Define the Following Terms

  • Exophthalmos

  • Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball

  • Adrenomegaly

  • Enlargement of the adrenal gland

  • Mastodynia

  • Painful breast

  • Anti-diuretic hormone

  • Affects the volume of urine excreted

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms6
Define the Following Terms

  • -tropin

  • Suffix means that which stimulates

  • Somatotropin

  • Substance that stimulates body’s growth

  • Andropathy

  • Any disease peculiar to males

  • Homeostasis

  • Stability in the normal body parts

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms7
Define the Following Terms

  • Gonadotropin

  • Substance that stimulates the gonads

  • Thyrotropin

  • Substance that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroxine

  • Hypogonadism

  • Decreased functional activity of the gonads with deterioration of sexual development

Medical Terminology


Define the following terms8
Define the Following Terms

  • Gonadopathy

  • Any disease of the ovaries and testes

  • Gonadectomy

  • Removal or excision of ovaries or testes

  • Periadenitis

  • Inflammation of tissues around a gland

  • Androgenic

  • Producing masculine characteristics

Medical Terminology


Write medical terms for the following
Write Medical Terms for the Following

  • Hemorrhage from a breast

  • Mastorrhagia

  • The organ or structure toward which the effects of a hormone are directed

  • Target gland/organ

  • An enlarged thyroid

  • Goiter

Medical Terminology


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