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كليات مباحث مطرح در اخلاق در پژوهش PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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كليات مباحث مطرح در اخلاق در پژوهش. تعريف اخلاق. اخلاق به اين سوال پاسخ مي گويد : What should I do in this situation ? اخلاق رعایت حقوق دیگران است. آيا اگر پژوهشگران اصلي كه طرح مطالعه را ارائه مي دهند ، بر موضوع مورد نظر تسلط چنداني نداشته باشند ، انجام طرح اخلاقي است ؟

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كليات مباحث مطرح در اخلاق در پژوهش

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What should I do in this situation ?



  • , , . .


  • !


  • Autonomy ( )

  • Beneficence

  • Nonmaleficence

  • Justice


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  • 1945 1943 ( 1000 )


Nazi Experiments


Two Nazi doctors at Dachau preside over a cold water immersion experiment on a prisoner


Doctor`s Trials

  • From about September 1942 to about December 1943 experiments were conducted at the Ravensbrck concentration camp to study bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration, and bone transplantation from one person to another. Sections of bones, muscles, and nerves were removed from the subjects


Nuremberg Trials


Milgram Shock Box


  • ( Stanly milgram ) . "" " " ( "" ) . "" () "" "" . "" ( ) .


  • . ( ) . . "" . .


USPHS Syphilis Study, 1932-72


The Tuskegee trials(1932 1972)

  • Initially supposed to last for six months!

  • 13 research reports & several generations of PHS and CDC researchers

  • 399 men with syphilis and 201 controls thought that they were being treated!

  • As I see it, we have no further interest in these patients until they die! (Dr Oliver Wenger 1933)


Research Ethics Milestones

Trigger EventsEthics Milestones

*Syphilis Study Begins

*The Nazi Experiments

*Human Radiation

Experiments Nuremberg Code 1947

*The Thalidomide Tragedy

Amendments to the Food, Drug, Cosmetic Act 1962

*Milgram Study

Declaration of

Helsinki 1964

*From Protecting Study Volunteers in Research, Dunn & Chadwick


()

Researchers Human Qualities

  • Integrity( )

  • Respect ()

  • Compassion( )

  • Professionalism( )

  • Courtesy ( )

  • Sensitivity()



  • PhD


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  • -

  • ( )



1379

6 26

364/7/

/3/1379


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  • All proposals for research that involve human subjects, or laboratory animals, must be submitted to independent ethical review.

  • Ethical review is directly linked to scientific review


  • , ,

  • Investigators and sponsors must also ensure that all who participate in the conduct of the research are qualified by virtue of their education and experience to perform competently in their roles. These considerations should be adequately reflected in the research protocol submitted for review


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  • :

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  • : .

    (( ))




  • 1- , . , .


  • - , 30 . .

    2


2- .

  • Well- being of the human subject should take precedence over the interests of science and society


  • - ( ...) NCV . 50 .


  • 3- , , , , .


  • - 30 , .


  • 4- , , , .


Informed consent


  • : ) )

  • 12 .

  • :

  • 1- ( )

  • 2-


3- ( )

4- .

5- ( Procedure, Placebo, Randomization ) .

6- .

7- ( )


8-

9-

10- .

11- ( )


  • A B, , .


  • " " , ,


10- . .


  • ,


  • - (Survey)


  • 13- (Risk) (Benefits) . , .


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  • 16- , , .


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19- .


  • ( ) . .


:

  • :

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Publication Ethics


Why Publish? 1+4 Ps Rule

  • Production of knowledge

  • Promotion

  • Prestige

  • Pelf


Authorship


  • modern journal 1665

  • 20 .

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  • 1970 :


Authorship

) , :

  • :


2) , .

3) .


) byline . .

) . .


) byline .

) , .

) , .


) , . , , .

  • Thefirst author has made the greatest contribution to the project (empirical work)

  • the last author listed is the senior scientist of the team, the team leader (intellectual force)


(Acknowledgment)

, " " .


Authorship

  • Coercion authorship:

  • Admiration authorship:

  • Gift authorship:

  • Ghostwriting:


  • J.H.S

  • 90 15

  • Nature,Science

  • 100


  • You may escape detection by falsifying an insignificant finding but then it will surely become exposed.

    D. Koshland


Misconduct Definition

  • Research misconduct or fraud means fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or deception in proposing, carrying out or reporting results of research and deliberate, dangerous or negligent deviations from accepted practices in carrying out research.

  • It does not include honest error or honest differences in the design, execution, interpretation or judgement in evaluating research methods or results


TYPES OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT

  • Fabrication is the invention of data or information.

  • Falsication is the alteration of the observed result of a scientic experiment.

  • Plagiarism is taking someone elses work without attributing the source and claiming it to be ones own. Several definitions of plagiarism exist. One is the repetition of 11 words, or even seven to 10 words



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