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### Evolution of Numerals

By Evan Evans

Visual Limits

- Humans have a visual distinguish “limit of four”.
- Different societies came up with ways to deal with this “limit of four”.

Egyptian 3rd Century BC

Other Counting Methods

The Elema of New Guinea

Here is a figure to show you what some people have used

Additive Numeral Systems

- Some societies have an additive numeral system: aprinciple of addition
- Each character has a value independent of its position in its representation
- Greek and Roman numeral systems

I 20 XX

2 II 25 XXV

3 III 29 XIX

4 IV (IIII) 50 L

5 V 75 LXXV

6 VI 100 C

10 X 500 D

11 XI 1000 M

16 XVI

Now try these:

XXXVI

36

XL

40

XVII

27

DCCLVI

756

MCMLXIX

1969

Roman NumeralsChronograms

- “Time Writing”
- A sentence or Inscription in which the Capital or Highlighted Letters, interpreted in Roman Numerals, represent a particular date.

Chronogram

“My Day Is Closed In Immortality”

- a chronogram commemorating the death of Queen Elizabeth the first.

M D I C I I

M D C I I I

1000+500+100+1+1+1

1603

Chronogram

Activity

Babylonian Maths

The Babylonians

Roots of 1, 2, 3 and 4

In the West

The Arabic numbers format are based traces with angles:Number one (1) has one angle.Number two (2) has two additives angles.Number three (3) has three additives angles.Number four (4) has four additive angles.The number four get closed due to cursive hand write

Roots of 5 through 10 numbers:

The circle is the symbol of the hand closed, which has five fingers.

The number five was written under the write line.

Joe has cows at home

Write Line

TEN

The number ten (the 2nd hand) was written (placed) on the top of write line.

Theoretically, the circle on the top of the write line acquires double value (ten value).

Joe has

Pigs at home

Additive Angles Theory

- For each number above 5 you add 1 angle
- Or for a number below 10 you subtract an angle

Evolution in Persia

The numbers evolved differently in Persia

Evolution in the East

The numerals from al-Sizji's treatise of 969

In only 120 years the numbers had changed

The numerals from al-Biruni's treatise copied in 1082

The Evolution of 2-3 in the East

- The numerals of 2 and 3 have been rotated 90 degrees
- Scribes copied text in columns from top to bottom onto scrolls
- Scribes unfamiliar with Indian numerals

Different dialects

Arabic-Indic٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩

Eastern Arabic-Indic(Persian and Urdu) ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹

Questions to Ask Yourselves

- Is this the end of our number system?
- Are there going to be any more changes in our present numbers?
- In 300 years from now, will the numbers have changed again to be something else?

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