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Evolution of Numerals. By Evan Evans. Some ancient numbers. Ancient numbers. Limits of Four. Visual Limits. Humans have a visual distinguish “limit of four”. Different societies came up with ways to deal with this “limit of four”. Egyptian 3 rd Century BC. Cretan 1700-1200BC.

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Evolution of numerals

Evolution of Numerals

By Evan Evans





Visual limits
Visual Limits

  • Humans have a visual distinguish “limit of four”.

  • Different societies came up with ways to deal with this “limit of four”.


Egyptian 3 rd century bc
Egyptian 3rd Century BC




Other counting methods
Other Counting Methods

The Elema of New Guinea

Here is a figure to show you what some people have used




Additive numeral systems
Additive Numeral Systems

  • Some societies have an additive numeral system: aprinciple of addition

  • Each character has a value independent of its position in its representation

  • Greek and Roman numeral systems




Roman numerals

I 20 XX

2 II 25 XXV

3 III 29 XIX

4 IV (IIII) 50 L

5 V 75 LXXV

6 VI 100 C

10 X 500 D

11 XI 1000 M

16 XVI

Now try these:

XXXVI

36

XL

40

XVII

27

DCCLVI

756

MCMLXIX

1969

Roman Numerals


Roman addition
Roman Addition

MMMDCCCI

3801


Roman subtraction
Roman Subtraction

CCXXXII

232


Roman multiplication
Roman Multiplication

MMMDCCL

3750


Chronograms
Chronograms

  • “Time Writing”

  • A sentence or Inscription in which the Capital or Highlighted Letters, interpreted in Roman Numerals, represent a particular date.


Chronogram
Chronogram

“My Day Is Closed In Immortality”

  • a chronogram commemorating the death of Queen Elizabeth the first. 

M D I C I I

M D C I I I

1000+500+100+1+1+1

1603


Chronogram1
Chronogram

Activity


Babylonian maths
Babylonian Maths

The Babylonians



B a b y l o n i a n
BabylonIan

=64

= 3604


Numbers traveled
Numbers Traveled

Through Exploration

Through Trade

Strong Arab Influence



Roots of 1 2 3 and 4
Roots of 1, 2, 3 and 4

In the West

The Arabic numbers format are based traces with angles:Number one (1) has one angle.Number two (2) has two additives angles.Number three (3) has three additives angles.Number four (4) has four additive angles.The number four get closed due to cursive hand write




Roots of 5 through 10 numbers
Roots of 5 through 10 numbers:

The circle is the symbol of the hand closed, which has five fingers.

The number five was written under the write line.

Joe has cows at home

Write Line


TEN

The number ten (the 2nd hand) was written (placed) on the top of  write line.

Theoretically, the circle on the top of the write line acquires double value (ten value).

Joe has

Pigs at home


Additive angles theory
Additive Angles Theory

  • For each number above 5 you add 1 angle

  • Or for a number below 10 you subtract an angle



Additive angles
Additive Angles

5 5 + 1 5 + 1 + 1

Write line

5

6

7





Evolution in persia
Evolution in Persia

The numbers evolved differently in Persia


Evolution in the east
Evolution in the East

The numerals from al-Sizji's treatise of 969

In only 120 years the numbers had changed

The numerals from al-Biruni's treatise copied in 1082


The evolution of 2 3 in the east
The Evolution of 2-3 in the East

  • The numerals of 2 and 3 have been rotated 90 degrees

  • Scribes copied text in columns from top to bottom onto scrolls

  • Scribes unfamiliar with Indian numerals



Different dialects
Different dialects

Arabic-Indic٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩

Eastern Arabic-Indic(Persian and Urdu) ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹


Questions to ask yourselves
Questions to Ask Yourselves

  • Is this the end of our number system?

  • Are there going to be any more changes in our present numbers?

  • In 300 years from now, will the numbers have changed again to be something else?



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