Opposition to Edward Jenner s vaccination  Exam Practice

Opposition to Edward Jenner s vaccination Exam Practice PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Opposition to Edward Jenner s vaccination Exam Practice

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1. Opposition to Edward Jenner’s vaccination Exam Practice

2. Mock Paper 1

6. C GRADE ANSWER (4/6) The impression of Edward Jenner that Source A gives me is a good one. It tells me his experiment on a boy proved the theory that cowpox could prevent people getting smallpox ‘he was inoculated with…smallpox ..no disease followed’. It also infers that Jenner went ahead despite not being believed in by the Royal Society.

7. A* GRADE ANSWER (6/6) The impression of Edward Jenner that Source A gives me is a positive one. It tells us he was a scientist and describes his experiment on a boy (James Phipps) receiving cowpox from ‘a sore on the hand of a dairy maid (Sarah Nelmes) who was infected by her master’s cows’ to test out the theory that people were immune to smallpox if they already had cowpox. Jenner successfully proved this theory to be true as Phipps did not die after being injected with smallpox once he had developed cowpox ‘he was inoculated with…smallpox ..no disease followed’. It also infers Jenner was a thorough man, ensuring that is was no coincidence that cowpox stopped smallpox by injecting the boy more than once ‘several months after wards he was again inoculated but there was no illness’. Source A also infers that Jenner was determined to go ahead with his vaccination because he had published his work in his book ‘an enquiry into the causes and affects of the variolae vaccine’. Also he carried on despite not being supported by the Royal Society ‘the Royal Society refused to publish it (experiment) because of opposition to Jenner’s ideas’.

10. C GRADE ANSWER (4/7) The painting shows what is being explained in Source A to an extent if you think that the little boy shown is James Phipps and the male adult shown is Edward Jenner injecting him with cowpox or smallpox in his experiment. However, this painting shows very little and could be anyone shown using a needle and who is the woman?

11. A* GRADE ANSWER (7/7) The painting shows what is being explained in Source A to an extent if you ASSUME that the little boy shown is James Phipps and the male adult shown is Edward Jenner injecting him with cowpox or smallpox in his experiment. However, this painting shows very little and could be anyone shown using a needle because there is no date nor artist attached to this painting (no provenance) and so we cant be sure it’s the experiment described in Source A. Neither is there any guarantee that the boy in the painting is Phipps or the adult is Jenner. There is no indication who the woman is and a female assistant is not mentioned in Source A. The painting fails to show Sarah Nelmes, the milkmaid from whom the cowpox was extracted nor the does the painting show us Phipp’s symptoms of cowpox. It is not clear as to the stage of the experiment in source B.

14. C GRADE ANSWER (5/8) Source C is useful to an extent to an historian studying why there was opposition to Jenner’s vaccination in the nineteenth century because it tells us that the Royal Society refused to accept his work because in their opinion he was too ‘incredible’. But it doesn’t tell us about why other people rejected his work.

15. A* GRADE ANSWER (8/8) Source C is useful to an extent to an historian studying why there was opposition to Jenner’s vaccination in the nineteenth century because it tells us that the Royal Society refused to accept his work and report on smallpox vaccination at the end of 1796; two individuals in particular being ‘Sir Joseph Banks …and Sir Everard Home’. Source C is also useful about the opposition to Jenner because it tells us why the society rejected his work ‘’was in variance with established knowledge..incredible’. i.e. Jenner’s work challenged what medicine and science accepted at that time (smallpox inoculation) and they thought his work was too far fetched.

18. C GRADE ANSWER (6/10) I do not agree that Gilray’s 1808 cartoon is of no value to an historian studying the reaction to Jenner’s smallpox vaccination. The cartoon shows how many people feared that his cowpox vaccine would them turn into cows by growing cow heads out of their mouths, bottoms and many people did fear this in 1808.

19. A* GRADE ANSWER (10/10) I do not agree that Gilray’s 1808 cartoon is of no value to an historian studying the reaction to Jenner’s smallpox vaccination. The cartoon shows how many people feared his vaccination at this time because he was using a cowpox vaccine injection and they thought they would develop bovine (cow like ) features on their bodies shown by the people in the cartoon growing udders and cow heads out of their heads, mouths, noses, arms and bottoms. The cartoon also tells us they could have opposed the injection itself by the way in which they have possibly drawn Jenner stood painfully injecting a woman with a lot of force and his facial expression appearing indifferent and uncaring. It’s a very sarcastic opinion of the cowpox vaccine with the caption ‘the cowpock-the wonderful effects of the new inoculation’ and deliberately contradicted by what is actually painted.; this could be challenging Jenner’s argument that the vaccine did have a beneficial effect.

22. C/B GRADE ANSWER (6/9) Yes this source could prove that Jenner’s smallpox vaccination could not be successfully used at the turn of the nineteenth century if I don’t use what I already know about its use. It tells us that doctors either couldn’t get hold of cowpox ‘cowpox did not occur widely’ or because doctors like Woodville got smallpox mixed up with cowpox and killed his patients. But I know that his vaccination was used in the 1800’s and it says in the background information that 12,000 people were vaccinated in 1802.

23. A* GRADE ANSWER (9/9) If you accepted without any question or without using my prior knowledge then yes this source could prove that Jenner’s smallpox vaccination could not be successfully used at the turn of the nineteenth century. It tells us that ‘Jenner’s newly proven technique for protecting people from smallpox did not catch on as he anticipated’ owing to the limited supplies of cowpox used as the vaccine ad also because other doctors were making serious mistakes using it such as William Woodville in 1799 ‘had contaminated the cowpox matter with smallpox matter and thus inadvertently inoculated his patients with smallpox’ and killing 600 of them.

26. Sources that support the view Sources that DON’T support the view

27. C/B GRADE ANSWER (6/10) I don’t think any of the sources on this paper directly support the view that people only opposed Jenner’s smallpox vaccination because they believed his experiment on a young boy to be morally wrong and dangerous.

28. A* GRADE ANSWER (10/10) I don’t think any of the sources on this paper directly support the view that people only opposed Jenner’s smallpox vaccination because they believed his experiment on a young boy to be morally wrong and dangerous.

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