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FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5. Module 5, Core Topics 9 and 10:. Safety Trends in GA Risk Management. Safety Trends: In this module, we:. Learn lessons from an NTSB report Introduce the Nall Report Understand frequent accident categories Strategies to prevent them. PRESCRIPTION FOR AN

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faasteam cfi workshop 5

FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5

Module 5, Core Topics 9 and 10:

  • Safety Trends in GA
  • Risk Management
safety trends in this module we
Safety Trends: In this module, we:
  • Learn lessons from an NTSB report
  • Introduce the Nall Report
  • Understand frequent accident categories
  • Strategies to prevent them
slide3

PRESCRIPTION

FOR AN

ACCIDENT

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO

slide7

Right-side fuel cap

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO

slide8

1

2

From the carburetor – where’s the fuel?

3

Photos courtesy LOU FSDO

slide9

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO

All these prescriptions belonged to the pilot. All were in the plane and were being taken at the time of the flight.

slide11

What is this?

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO

slide12

Pilot was a fatality.

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO

links in this accident chain
Links in this accident chain. . .
  • Lack of Maintenance
  • Lack of Preflight
  • Medical Condition
  • Medications
  • Get to LEX-itis
  • Lack of Seatbelt/Harness use

You are thinking, “I would never do that” … BUT

the real cause was
The Real Cause Was

Getting comfortable with poor habits.

He no longer saw anything wrong with his personal operating standards.

lessons learned
Lessons Learned
  • Re-evaluate habits
  • Never get too comfortable in our habits
  • Discipline to make needed changes
  • Allow others to evaluate us

Photo courtesy Cessna Pilot Centers

slide16

Watch for complacencyEncourage safe operating standardsDuring flight reviews and aircraft checkouts, you must bring pilots with bad habits back into proper perspective.

Lessons for CFIs

yearly accident trend summary
Yearly Accident Trend Summary

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report

2007 personal flight accident trend
2007 Personal Flight Accident Trend

39.4% of all GA flying

69.1% of total accidents

72.9% of fatal accidents

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report

2007 pilot related accident trends
2007 Pilot Related Accident Trends

Weather

Maneuvering

Descent/Approach

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report

2007 weather accidents
2007 Weather Accidents

VFR into IMC

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report

why are we here
Why Are We Here?

Personal Flight

Pilot Related

  • Maneuvering
  • Approach and Landing
  • VFR into IMC

Future CFI Workshops will focus on maneuvering and approach/landing.

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report

how it happens
How it Happens

1/2 SM visibility

1 SM visibility

3 SM visibility

5 SM visibility

10 SM visibility

  • Accuracy of estimating in-fight visibility
  • Pilot over-confidence in decision making
  • Willingness to take risks
preventing vfr into imc ideas for the future
Preventing VFR into IMC - Ideas for the future

Encourage pilots/students to make the Go or No/Go weather decision.

ideas for the future
Ideas for the Future

VFR Not Recommended

Photo from www.flightaware.com

ideas for the future1
Ideas for the future

Fly in or near weather

ideas for the future2
Ideas for the future
  • Fly more cross countries
  • Combine lessons for longer cross counties
  • Multiple students to vacation destinations
ideas for the future3
Ideas for the future

Plane capable AND pilot capable

Manage expectations

Schedule an alternate plan

Continue?

Divert?

Land?

ideas for the future4
Ideas for the future

Continue to build your skills and confidence

slide31

AOPA Nall Report

Available at www.aopa.org/asf/publications

summary
Summary

None of the hours

in the logbook matter

as much as this minute

in the cockpit.

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report

faasteam cfi workshop 51
FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5

Safety Trends in GA

Questions?

Comments?

Ideas?

Quiz time

safety trends question 1
Safety Trends Question #1

The increased costs of aircraft operation will have a positive effect on aviation accidents due to the resultant decrease in the number of General Aviation flight hours.

True or false?

safety trends question 2
Safety Trends Question #2

The General Aviation Joint Steering Committee conducts it’s work in three subgroups;

  • Flight Instruction, 135 on demand operators, and Sport Pilots.
  • Technically Advanced Aircraft, Flight Instruction, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.
  • Personal/Sport Aviation, Technically Advanced Aircraft, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.
safety trends question 3
Safety Trends Question #3

The objective of the Automation Subgroup is to;

a) Research Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA) issues.

b) Develop computer programs.

c) Develop Training for FAASafety.Gov.

safety trends question 4
Safety Trends Question #4

What is the most significant causal factor decline that has been identified in General Aviation accidents since the Wright Brother Days?

a) Maintenance

b) Flight Operations

c) Ground operations

d) Flying under the influence of alcohol

safety trends question 5
Safety Trends Question #5

It is possible to identify certain segments flight operations such as, takeoff, landing, and low altitude maneuvering during which there is an increased potential for accidents.

True or false?

Answers follow ~

safety trends question 11
Safety Trends Question #1

The increased costs of aircraft operation will have a positive effect on aviation accidents due to the resultant decrease in the number of General Aviation flight hours.

True or false?

Answer~

False, the number of operations may decrease but pilot proficiency also declines. – FAASTeam accepted statistical evidence.

safety trends question 21
Safety Trends Question #2

The General Aviation Joint Steering Committee conducts it’s work in three subgroups;

  • Flight Instruction, 135 on demand operators, and Sport Pilots.
  • Technically Advanced Aircraft, Flight Instruction, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.
  • Personal/Sport Aviation, Technically Advanced Aircraft, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.

Answer ~

c) – These subgroups are a matter of record.

safety trends question 31
Safety Trends Question #3

The objective of the Automation Subgroup is to;

a) Research Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA) issues

b) Develop computer programs

c) Develop Training for FAASafety.Gov

Answer ~

a) – Research TAA aviation safety issues

safety trends question 41
Safety Trends Question #4

What is the most significant causal factor decline that has been identified in General Aviation accidents since the Wright Brother Days?

a) Maintenance

b) Flight Operations

c) Ground operations

  • Flying under the influence of alcohol

Answer ~

d)Maintenance – Trend identified by the data sources mentioned previously.

safety trends question 51
Safety Trends Question #5

It is possible to identify certain segments flight operations such as, takeoff, landing, and low altitude maneuvering during which there is an increased potential for accidents.

True or false?

Answer ~

True – For example NTSB statistics demonstrate that over the past years a significant number of aviation mishaps occur when takeoff, landing, or go-around maneuvers are being accomplished.

risk management for flight instructors
Risk Managementfor

Flight Instructors

slide46
The pilot lost control after the aircraft touched down on one wheel, swerved sharply, hit several runway lights, left the runway, and came to rest in the airport boundary fence. The winds were 60-degrees crosswind to the runway at 32KTS with gusts to 40.

What caused this incident?

risk management a definition
Risk Management – A Definition:

The part of the decision making process which relies on;

  • situational awareness
  • problem recognition
  • and, good judgment

to reduce risks associated with each flight.

teaching risk management
Teaching Risk Management
  • Hazard Identification
  • Risk Assessment
  • Time critical framework
  • Risk Management Controls
risk assessment
Risk Assessment

3SM visibility – is it a risk?

  • For a student pilot?
  • 100 hr. VFR-only private pilot?
  • 500 hr. IFR pilot flying in the mountains
  • 1,000 hr. IFR pilot with 5 hrs experience in a glass cockpit?
  • 1,500 hr. ATP pilot flying in busy airspace?

Photo AOPA Gallery

where to land
Where to Land?
  • West at 10,500MSL
  • To Portland, Oregon
  • Cessna 172 (TAS 110KIAS)
  • Snow showers reduced visibility
  • 5:35pm local time
  • Fuel remaining is about 90 minutes.

What will you do?

VFR-Only

200-hr private pilot

slide51

10,500MSL

Cessna 172

5:35pm local time

90 minutes fuel

hazard identification
Hazard Identification
  • Pilot
  • Aircraft
  • Environment
  • Situation

www.skyvectors.com

hazardous attitudes and antidotes
Hazardous Attitudes and Antidotes

Anti-authority – Don’t tell me.

  • Follow the rules, they are usually right

Impulsivity – Do something – do it now.

  • Not so fast, think first

Invulnerability – It won’t happen to me.

  • It could happen to me.

Macho – I can do it.

  • Taking chances is foolish.

Resignation – What’s the use?

  • I can make a difference.
slide54

Time Critical Framework

5:35pm local time

60 minutes fuel

risk management controls
Risk Management Controls

(1) Identify personal hazardous attitudes.(2) Learn to recognize and cope with stress.(3) Develop risk assessment skills.(4) Use all resources.(5) Evaluate the effectiveness of decisions.

d e c i d e
D.E.C.I.D.E

D = Detect

E = Estimate

C = Choose

I = Identify

D = Do

E = Evaluate

Photo: Quest Kodiak 100

including risk management into flight training
Including Risk Management into Flight Training
  • Situations to stimulate decision making
  • Practice problem solving
  • Create circumstances that make unsafe judgments look appealing
scenario database
Scenario Database

At 7:00PM, after an exhausting 3-day business meeting, you load the rental plane and file VFR for a 2-hr flight. You discover your only pair of reading glasses was left back at the hotel. You have no problem seeing distance but can’t read panel gauges or a chart very well. Weather is 3,500 ceiling, 5SM visibility with 15 kt crosswinds at your designation. If you depart in the next 20 minutes you can land before dark. You decide to:

  • Depart and fly to land before dark. Purchase a new pair of glasses at your destination.
  • Call the hotel, if they have your glasses go get them and takeoff late this evening.
  • Call the hotel, if they do not have your glasses, spend the night. Tomorrow purchase a new pair and fly takeoff.
  • Call the hotel, if they have your glasses, go get them, spend the night and takeoff in the morning.

From: www.avhf.com

slide59

What Would You Do?

5:35pm local time

90 minutes fuel

evaluating pilot s decision making
Evaluating Pilot’s Decision Making
  • Use a decision making process, (such as the DECIDE model) when making decisions that will have an effect on the outcome of the flight. Pilot should be able to explain factors and alternatives that were considered.

Detect – Estimate – Choose – Identify – Do – Evaluate

  • Recognize and explain any hazardous attitudes that may have influenced any decision.
  • Decide and execute an appropriate course of action to handle any situation that arises that may cause a change in the original flight plan in such a way that leads to a safe and successful conclusion of the flight.
evaluating pilot s risk management
Evaluating Pilot’s Risk Management

Assess the potential risk associated with planned flight during preflight planning and in flight.

  • Explain risk elements with the given scenario and how each was assessed.
  • Use a tool, such as PAVE to assess the risk elements.

Pilot – Aircraft – enVironment – External Factors

evaluating pilot s risk management1
Evaluating Pilot’s Risk Management

Assess the potential risk associated with planned flight during preflight planning and in flight.

  • Use a personal checklist, such as “I’MSAFE”, to determine personal risks.

Illness – Medication – Stress – Alcohol – Fatigue– Eating

  • Explain how risks are likely to change as the flight progresses and options for mitigating risks.

Information on the D.E.C.I.D.E., P.A.V.E., and I.M.S.A.F.E. checklists can be found at: www.faa.gov > (search for) “Flight Instructor Training Module” and Advisory Circular “AC 60-22”

faasteam cfi workshop 52
FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5

Risk Management

Questions?

Comments?

Ideas?

Quiz time

risk management question 1
Risk Management Question #1

Which of the following are hazardous attitudes?

a) Tormenter

b) Macho

c) Recluse

d) Quarrelsome

risk management question 2
Risk Management Question #2

Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks.

True or False?

risk management question 3
Risk Management Question #3

Is it a “Hazard, or Risk” that is anything, real or potential, that could make possible, or contribute to making possible, an accident?

risk management question 4
Risk Management Question #4

An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the D.E.C.I.D.E?

  • Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate
  • Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate
  • Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate
  • None of the above

Answers follow ~

risk management question 11
Risk Management Question #1

Which of the following are hazardous attitudes?

a) Tormenter

b) Macho

c) Recluse

d) Quarrelsome

Answer ~

b) Macho – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

risk management question 21
Risk Management Question #2

Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks.

True or False?

Answer ~

a) True – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

risk management question 31
Risk Management Question #3

Is it a “Hazard, or Risk” that is anything, real or potential, that could make possible, or contribute to making possible, an accident?

Answer ~

“Hazard” – Managing the Risk of Organizational Accidents – James Reason

risk management question 41
Risk Management Question #4

An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the D.E.C.I.D.E?

  • Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate
  • Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate
  • Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate
  • None of the above

Answer ~

a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate – AC 60-22, Chapter 5, figure 6

for more info
For More Info

Train Like You Fly, a flight instructor’s guide to scenario based training.

Send comments to:

Arlynn McMahon

2009 National Flight Instructor of the Year

[email protected]

slide73

Thiscompletes

CFI Workshop Module #5

Be sure to have your attendance record validated

See you for Module #6

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