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FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5. Module 5, Core Topics 9 and 10:. Safety Trends in GA Risk Management. Safety Trends: In this module, we:. Learn lessons from an NTSB report Introduce the Nall Report Understand frequent accident categories Strategies to prevent them. PRESCRIPTION FOR AN

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FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5

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Faasteam cfi workshop 5

FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5

Module 5, Core Topics 9 and 10:

  • Safety Trends in GA

  • Risk Management


Safety trends in this module we

Safety Trends: In this module, we:

  • Learn lessons from an NTSB report

  • Introduce the Nall Report

  • Understand frequent accident categories

  • Strategies to prevent them


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

PRESCRIPTION

FOR AN

ACCIDENT

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

The pilot owned his plane for 19 years.

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

No evidence of any maintenance of any kind for YEARS!

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Right-side fuel cap

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

1

2

From the carburetor – where’s the fuel?

3

Photos courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO

All these prescriptions belonged to the pilot. All were in the plane and were being taken at the time of the flight.


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Buckle is tucked in between the seat cushion and the spring!

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

What is this?

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Pilot was a fatality.

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Links in this accident chain

Links in this accident chain. . .

  • Lack of Maintenance

  • Lack of Preflight

  • Medical Condition

  • Medications

  • Get to LEX-itis

  • Lack of Seatbelt/Harness use

You are thinking, “I would never do that” … BUT


The real cause was

The Real Cause Was

Getting comfortable with poor habits.

He no longer saw anything wrong with his personal operating standards.


Lessons learned

Lessons Learned

  • Re-evaluate habits

  • Never get too comfortable in our habits

  • Discipline to make needed changes

  • Allow others to evaluate us

Photo courtesy Cessna Pilot Centers


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Watch for complacencyEncourage safe operating standardsDuring flight reviews and aircraft checkouts, you must bring pilots with bad habits back into proper perspective.

Lessons for CFIs


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Photo courtesy LOU FSDO


Ntsb reports

NTSB Reports


Yearly accident trend summary

Yearly Accident Trend Summary

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report


2007 personal flight accident trend

2007 Personal Flight Accident Trend

39.4% of all GA flying

69.1% of total accidents

72.9% of fatal accidents

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report


2007 pilot related accident trends

2007 Pilot Related Accident Trends

Weather

Maneuvering

Descent/Approach

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report


2007 weather accidents

2007 Weather Accidents

VFR into IMC

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report


Why are we here

Why Are We Here?

Personal Flight

Pilot Related

  • Maneuvering

  • Approach and Landing

  • VFR into IMC

Future CFI Workshops will focus on maneuvering and approach/landing.

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report


How it happens

How it Happens

1/2 SM visibility

1 SM visibility

3 SM visibility

5 SM visibility

10 SM visibility

  • Accuracy of estimating in-fight visibility

  • Pilot over-confidence in decision making

  • Willingness to take risks


Preventing vfr into imc ideas for the future

Preventing VFR into IMC - Ideas for the future

Encourage pilots/students to make the Go or No/Go weather decision.


Ideas for the future

Ideas for the Future

VFR Not Recommended

Photo from www.flightaware.com


Ideas for the future1

Ideas for the future

Fly in or near weather


Ideas for the future2

Ideas for the future

  • Fly more cross countries

  • Combine lessons for longer cross counties

  • Multiple students to vacation destinations


Ideas for the future3

Ideas for the future

Plane capable AND pilot capable

Manage expectations

Schedule an alternate plan

Continue?

Divert?

Land?


Ideas for the future4

Ideas for the future

Continue to build your skills and confidence


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

AOPA Nall Report

Available at www.aopa.org/asf/publications


Summary

Summary

None of the hours

in the logbook matter

as much as this minute

in the cockpit.

Source: 2008 AOPA Nall Report


Faasteam cfi workshop 51

FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5

Safety Trends in GA

Questions?

Comments?

Ideas?

Quiz time


Safety trends question 1

Safety Trends Question #1

The increased costs of aircraft operation will have a positive effect on aviation accidents due to the resultant decrease in the number of General Aviation flight hours.

True or false?


Safety trends question 2

Safety Trends Question #2

The General Aviation Joint Steering Committee conducts it’s work in three subgroups;

  • Flight Instruction, 135 on demand operators, and Sport Pilots.

  • Technically Advanced Aircraft, Flight Instruction, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.

  • Personal/Sport Aviation, Technically Advanced Aircraft, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.


Safety trends question 3

Safety Trends Question #3

The objective of the Automation Subgroup is to;

a) Research Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA) issues.

b) Develop computer programs.

c) Develop Training for FAASafety.Gov.


Safety trends question 4

Safety Trends Question #4

What is the most significant causal factor decline that has been identified in General Aviation accidents since the Wright Brother Days?

a) Maintenance

b) Flight Operations

c) Ground operations

d) Flying under the influence of alcohol


Safety trends question 5

Safety Trends Question #5

It is possible to identify certain segments flight operations such as, takeoff, landing, and low altitude maneuvering during which there is an increased potential for accidents.

True or false?

Answers follow ~


Safety trends question 11

Safety Trends Question #1

The increased costs of aircraft operation will have a positive effect on aviation accidents due to the resultant decrease in the number of General Aviation flight hours.

True or false?

Answer~

False, the number of operations may decrease but pilot proficiency also declines. – FAASTeam accepted statistical evidence.


Safety trends question 21

Safety Trends Question #2

The General Aviation Joint Steering Committee conducts it’s work in three subgroups;

  • Flight Instruction, 135 on demand operators, and Sport Pilots.

  • Technically Advanced Aircraft, Flight Instruction, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.

  • Personal/Sport Aviation, Technically Advanced Aircraft, and Turbine Aircraft Operations.

    Answer ~

    c) – These subgroups are a matter of record.


Safety trends question 31

Safety Trends Question #3

The objective of the Automation Subgroup is to;

a) Research Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA) issues

b) Develop computer programs

c) Develop Training for FAASafety.Gov

Answer ~

a) – Research TAA aviation safety issues


Safety trends question 41

Safety Trends Question #4

What is the most significant causal factor decline that has been identified in General Aviation accidents since the Wright Brother Days?

a) Maintenance

b) Flight Operations

c) Ground operations

  • Flying under the influence of alcohol

    Answer ~

    d)Maintenance – Trend identified by the data sources mentioned previously.


Safety trends question 51

Safety Trends Question #5

It is possible to identify certain segments flight operations such as, takeoff, landing, and low altitude maneuvering during which there is an increased potential for accidents.

True or false?

Answer ~

True – For example NTSB statistics demonstrate that over the past years a significant number of aviation mishaps occur when takeoff, landing, or go-around maneuvers are being accomplished.


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Take a Break!


Risk management for flight instructors

Risk Managementfor

Flight Instructors


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

The pilot lost control after the aircraft touched down on one wheel, swerved sharply, hit several runway lights, left the runway, and came to rest in the airport boundary fence. The winds were 60-degrees crosswind to the runway at 32KTS with gusts to 40.

What caused this incident?


Risk management a definition

Risk Management – A Definition:

The part of the decision making process which relies on;

  • situational awareness

  • problem recognition

  • and, good judgment

    to reduce risks associated with each flight.


Teaching risk management

Teaching Risk Management

  • Hazard Identification

  • Risk Assessment

  • Time critical framework

  • Risk Management Controls


Risk assessment

Risk Assessment

3SM visibility – is it a risk?

  • For a student pilot?

  • 100 hr. VFR-only private pilot?

  • 500 hr. IFR pilot flying in the mountains

  • 1,000 hr. IFR pilot with 5 hrs experience in a glass cockpit?

  • 1,500 hr. ATP pilot flying in busy airspace?

Photo AOPA Gallery


Where to land

Where to Land?

  • West at 10,500MSL

  • To Portland, Oregon

  • Cessna 172 (TAS 110KIAS)

  • Snow showers reduced visibility

  • 5:35pm local time

  • Fuel remaining is about 90 minutes.

    What will you do?

VFR-Only

200-hr private pilot


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

10,500MSL

Cessna 172

5:35pm local time

90 minutes fuel


Hazard identification

Hazard Identification

  • Pilot

  • Aircraft

  • Environment

  • Situation

www.skyvectors.com


Hazardous attitudes and antidotes

Hazardous Attitudes and Antidotes

Anti-authority – Don’t tell me.

  • Follow the rules, they are usually right

    Impulsivity – Do something – do it now.

  • Not so fast, think first

    Invulnerability – It won’t happen to me.

  • It could happen to me.

    Macho – I can do it.

  • Taking chances is foolish.

    Resignation – What’s the use?

  • I can make a difference.


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Time Critical Framework

5:35pm local time

60 minutes fuel


Risk management controls

Risk Management Controls

(1) Identify personal hazardous attitudes.(2) Learn to recognize and cope with stress.(3) Develop risk assessment skills.(4) Use all resources.(5) Evaluate the effectiveness of decisions.


D e c i d e

D.E.C.I.D.E

D = Detect

E = Estimate

C = Choose

I = Identify

D = Do

E = Evaluate

Photo: Quest Kodiak 100


Including risk management into flight training

Including Risk Management into Flight Training

  • Situations to stimulate decision making

  • Practice problem solving

  • Create circumstances that make unsafe judgments look appealing


Scenario database

Scenario Database

At 7:00PM, after an exhausting 3-day business meeting, you load the rental plane and file VFR for a 2-hr flight. You discover your only pair of reading glasses was left back at the hotel. You have no problem seeing distance but can’t read panel gauges or a chart very well. Weather is 3,500 ceiling, 5SM visibility with 15 kt crosswinds at your designation. If you depart in the next 20 minutes you can land before dark. You decide to:

  • Depart and fly to land before dark. Purchase a new pair of glasses at your destination.

  • Call the hotel, if they have your glasses go get them and takeoff late this evening.

  • Call the hotel, if they do not have your glasses, spend the night. Tomorrow purchase a new pair and fly takeoff.

  • Call the hotel, if they have your glasses, go get them, spend the night and takeoff in the morning.

From: www.avhf.com


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

What Would You Do?

5:35pm local time

90 minutes fuel


Evaluating pilot s decision making

Evaluating Pilot’s Decision Making

  • Use a decision making process, (such as the DECIDE model) when making decisions that will have an effect on the outcome of the flight. Pilot should be able to explain factors and alternatives that were considered.

    Detect – Estimate – Choose – Identify – Do – Evaluate

  • Recognize and explain any hazardous attitudes that may have influenced any decision.

  • Decide and execute an appropriate course of action to handle any situation that arises that may cause a change in the original flight plan in such a way that leads to a safe and successful conclusion of the flight.


Evaluating pilot s risk management

Evaluating Pilot’s Risk Management

Assess the potential risk associated with planned flight during preflight planning and in flight.

  • Explain risk elements with the given scenario and how each was assessed.

  • Use a tool, such as PAVE to assess the risk elements.

    Pilot – Aircraft – enVironment – External Factors


Evaluating pilot s risk management1

Evaluating Pilot’s Risk Management

Assess the potential risk associated with planned flight during preflight planning and in flight.

  • Use a personal checklist, such as “I’MSAFE”, to determine personal risks.

    Illness – Medication – Stress – Alcohol – Fatigue– Eating

  • Explain how risks are likely to change as the flight progresses and options for mitigating risks.

    Information on the D.E.C.I.D.E., P.A.V.E., and I.M.S.A.F.E. checklists can be found at: www.faa.gov > (search for) “Flight Instructor Training Module” and Advisory Circular “AC 60-22”


Faasteam cfi workshop 52

FAASTeam CFI Workshop #5

Risk Management

Questions?

Comments?

Ideas?

Quiz time


Risk management question 1

Risk Management Question #1

Which of the following are hazardous attitudes?

a) Tormenter

b) Macho

c) Recluse

d) Quarrelsome


Risk management question 2

Risk Management Question #2

Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks.

True or False?


Risk management question 3

Risk Management Question #3

Is it a “Hazard, or Risk” that is anything, real or potential, that could make possible, or contribute to making possible, an accident?


Risk management question 4

Risk Management Question #4

An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the D.E.C.I.D.E?

  • Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate

  • Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate

  • Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate

  • None of the above

    Answers follow ~


Risk management question 11

Risk Management Question #1

Which of the following are hazardous attitudes?

a) Tormenter

b) Macho

c) Recluse

d) Quarrelsome

Answer ~

b) Macho – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge


Risk management question 21

Risk Management Question #2

Effective workload management ensures that essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks.

True or False?

Answer ~

a) True – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge


Risk management question 31

Risk Management Question #3

Is it a “Hazard, or Risk” that is anything, real or potential, that could make possible, or contribute to making possible, an accident?

Answer ~

“Hazard” – Managing the Risk of Organizational Accidents – James Reason


Risk management question 41

Risk Management Question #4

An excellent tool in making good aeronautical decisions is the D.E.C.I.D.E model. What are the six attributes of the D.E.C.I.D.E?

  • Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate

  • Drop, Evacuate, Criticize, Indemnify, Decimate, Exacerbate

  • Determine, Eliminate, Choose, Initiate, Divert, Evacuate

  • None of the above

    Answer ~

    a) Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, Evaluate – AC 60-22, Chapter 5, figure 6


For more info

For More Info

Train Like You Fly, a flight instructor’s guide to scenario based training.

Send comments to:

Arlynn McMahon

2009 National Flight Instructor of the Year

[email protected]


Faasteam cfi workshop 5

Thiscompletes

CFI Workshop Module #5

Be sure to have your attendance record validated

See you for Module #6


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