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Inflorescences. Spring 2014. What is an inflorescence?. Simpson = An aggregate of one or more flowers, the boundaries of which generally occur with the presence of vegetative leaves below

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Inflorescences

Inflorescences

Spring 2014


What is an inflorescence
What is an inflorescence?

  • Simpson = An aggregate of one or more flowers, the boundaries of which generally occur with the presence of vegetative leaves below

  • Judd et al. 2008 = The shoot system which serves for the formation of flowers and which is modified accordingly


Look for the flowering zone!

(from Judd et al. 2008)


Inflorescence development

Determinate: the apical meristem of the primary

inflorescence axis terminates in a flower, which

usually matures first with overall maturation from

the apex to the base

Indeterminate: the apical meristem of the primary

inflorescence axis does not terminate in a flower

but rather retains its meristematic potential,

with maturation going from the base to the apex




scorpioid cyme

cyme

terminal &

solitary

head

helicoid cyme



raceme

spike

spadix

head

panicle


Determinate or indeterminate types

Also heads can be either

determinate or indeterminate.

Fig. 9.37




Fruits

Fruits

Spring 2014


Maturation
Maturation

  • An inflorescence matures into an infructescence.

  • An ovary (simple or compound) matures into the fruit (but may include additional structures (e.g., hypanthium or perianth parts).

  • A fertilized ovule matures into a seed.


Ovary wall becomes the pericarp
Ovary wall becomes the pericarp:

  • ENDOCARP – innermost layer

  • MESOCARP - middle layer

  • EXOCARP - outermost layer

    Each can be modified independently of the others (e.g., the endocarp can be stony, the mesocarp fleshy, and the exocarp leathery) or the pericarp can be of uniform color or texture.

pericarp


exocarp

mesocarp

endocarp

seed

Avocado

(Persea, Lauraceae)


Three main fruit groups
Three main fruit groups

  • Simple fruit = a fruit that develops from a single flower with a single simple or compound pistil

  • Aggregate fruit = develops from multiple separate carpels (pistils) of a single flower; unit fruit is what develops from one carpel

  • Multiple fruit = a fruit derived from the gynoecia of several closely clustered flowers; unit fruit comes from one flower


Simple fruits
Simple fruits

  • Simple fruits = fruits developing from the gynoecium of a single flower (i.e., a single carpel or a compound ovary of 2 or more carpels); can be dry or fleshy


Dry simple fruits
Dry Simple Fruits

  • Dry at maturity

  • Does fruit open (dehisce) or not?

    (Dehiscent versus indehiscent)

  • Number of carpels? Number of seeds?

  • Are any wings or other appendages present?




Utricle – a bladdery or inflated achene

with the pericarp larger than the seed


Caryopsis grains singled seeded seed coat fused to pericarp unique to grasses
Caryopsis: “Grains”; singled-seeded, seed coat fused to pericarp; unique to grasses

Wheat

(Triticumaestivum)

Maize (Zea mays)


Samara a single seeded dry winged indehiscent fruit
Samara pericarp; unique to grasses— a single-seeded, dry, winged indehiscent fruit

Ulmus (Ulmaceae)


Dry indehiscent fruits nuts
Dry Indehiscent Fruits: Nuts pericarp; unique to grasses

hard-shelled,

one-seeded


Dehiscent dry fruits
Dehiscent Dry Fruits pericarp; unique to grasses

Fig. 9.41


Follicle one suture opens
Follicle: one suture opens pericarp; unique to grasses

Asclepias (Milkweed, Apocynaceae)


Follicles in the pericarp; unique to grasses

Ranunculaceae

(buttercup family)

http://tezalizard.blogspot.com


Legume opens along 2 sutures
Legume: opens along 2 sutures pericarp; unique to grasses

Bean Family

Fabaceae

(Leguminosae)


Capsule: a dry fruit formed from 2 or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds


Loculicidal capsule
Loculicidal and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds Capsule

Each carpel splits along the middle,

opening directly into the locule


Septicidal capsule
Septicidal and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds Capsule

The carpels

separate

along their

side walls,

or septa.


Poricidal capsule
Poricidal and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds Capsule

Papaver (Poppy, Papaveraceae)


Capsule modifications
Capsule modifications and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

In some plant families, capsules are

modified in special, characteristic ways.

Fruit and seed dispersal are still the

guiding needs.


Cruciferous dry fruits
Cruciferous Dry Fruits and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

Silique

Silicle

Mustard Family (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae)

2-carpellate, outer rim (replum), persistent partition (false septum)


Schizocarp of mericarps and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

Dill (Apiaceae)

samaroid mericarps

Acer (Sapindaceae)


Fleshy simple fruits
Fleshy Simple Fruits and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

One or more layers of the pericarp

become fleshy—which one(s)?

Number of carpels? Number of seeds?

From a superior or inferior ovary?


Fleshy simple fruits1
Fleshy Simple Fruits and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

  • Berry – Entire pericarp fleshy or exocarp may be leathery; one to many seeds

  • Drupe - Mesocarp fleshy, endocarp hard, exocarp variable; usually one seeded but can have multiple seeds

  • Pome – Fleshy mesocarp (mainly hypanthium tissue) and leathery or papery endocarp; derived from an inferior ovary (Rosaceae)


Berry
Berry and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

Capsicum (Solanaceae)


Berry other examples
Berry—other examples and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

blueberries

tomatoes

tomato

relatives

bananas

eggplants


Berry pepo
Berry ( and dehiscing at maturity to release the seedsPepo)

Found in the

Cucumber Family

(Cucurbitaceae):

parietal placentation,

leathery exocarp


Berry hesperidium
Berry and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds(hesperidium)

Found in the citrus family (Rutaceae):

Leathery exocarp, fleshy modified trichomes (juice sacs)


Drupe stony endocarp
Drupe—stony endocarp and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds


Drupe coconut
Drupe - Coconut and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

Cocosnucifera

(Arecaceae)


Pome and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

Rose family (Rosaceae): inferior ovary, cartilaginous

endocarp, fleshy hypanthial tissue


Three main fruit groups1
Three main fruit groups and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

  • Simple fruit = a fruit that develops from a single flower

  • Aggregate fruit = develops from multiple separate carpels of a single flower; unit fruit is what develops from one carpel

  • Multiple fruit = a fruit derived from the gynoecia of several closely clustered flowers; unit fruit comes from one flower


Aggregate fruit
Aggregate and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds Fruit

Rubus

(Rosaceae)


Aggregate of achenes
Aggregate of and dehiscing at maturity to release the seedsAchenes


Aggregate of samaras and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds


Three main fruit types
Three main fruit types and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

  • Simple fruit = a fruit that develops from a single flower

  • Aggregate fruit = develops from multiple separate carpels of a single flower; unit fruit is what develops from one carpel

  • Multiple fruit = a fruit derived from the gynoecia of several closely clustered flowers; unit fruit comes from one flower


Multiple fruit of and dehiscing at maturity to release the seedsachenes

Platanus (sycamore)

A. Laurent


Multiple fruit pineapple
Multiple Fruit - Pineapple and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds

Ananas (Bromeliaceae)


Multiple fruit syconium fig
Multiple Fruit: and dehiscing at maturity to release the seedsSyconium (Fig)

Ficus (Moraceae)