Inflorescences. Spring 2014. What is an inflorescence?. Simpson = An aggregate of one or more flowers, the boundaries of which generally occur with the presence of vegetative leaves below
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(from Judd et al. 2008)
Determinate: the apical meristem of the primary
inflorescence axis terminates in a flower, which
usually matures first with overall maturation from
the apex to the base
Indeterminate: the apical meristem of the primary
inflorescence axis does not terminate in a flower
but rather retains its meristematic potential,
with maturation going from the base to the apex
Also heads can be either
determinate or indeterminate.
Each can be modified independently of the others (e.g., the endocarp can be stony, the mesocarp fleshy, and the exocarp leathery) or the pericarp can be of uniform color or texture.
(Dehiscent versus indehiscent)
with the pericarp larger than the seed
Maize (Zea mays)
Asclepias (Milkweed, Apocynaceae)
Follicles in the pericarp; unique to grasses
Each carpel splits along the middle,
opening directly into the locule
Papaver (Poppy, Papaveraceae)
In some plant families, capsules are
modified in special, characteristic ways.
Fruit and seed dispersal are still the
Mustard Family (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae)
2-carpellate, outer rim (replum), persistent partition (false septum)
Schizocarp of mericarps and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds
One or more layers of the pericarp
become fleshy—which one(s)?
Number of carpels? Number of seeds?
From a superior or inferior ovary?
Found in the
Found in the citrus family (Rutaceae):
Leathery exocarp, fleshy modified trichomes (juice sacs)
Rose family (Rosaceae): inferior ovary, cartilaginous
endocarp, fleshy hypanthial tissue
Aggregate of samaras and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds
Multiple fruit of and dehiscing at maturity to release the seedsachenes