The Immune System. The immune system defends against germs and microogransisms through a series of steps called the immune response. Through this response, the body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances harmful to the body.
The Immune System
Antigen – Foreign substance, such as a bacteria or toxin that prompts the generation of antibodies to cause an immune response
Antibody – Immunoglobulin protein, made by B-cells, that reacts only with the specific antigen that induced its formation
*An antigen matches an antibody much as a key matches a lock and whenever they match, the antibody destroys the antigen.
Immunoglobulin – serum protein synthesized by lymphocytes and plasma cells that has known antibody activity
Cells that are part of the
- “The immune system’s army”
How does the Immune Response
When T cells activate B cells, they go into different plasma cells. The plasma cells flood the bloodstream with antibodies that bind to the antigens on the surface of the pathogens, so that the macrophages can destroy them. Sometimes, the B cells become memory B cells that survive for many decades to give “immunity” to diseases after you have had them once or have been vaccinated.
- An allergic reaction is the body’s way of responding to an invader
- An allergic reaction is the body’s overreaction to a harmless substance (an allergen)
-almost anything can trigger an allergic reaction-body senses antigen (trigger)-white blood cells and antibodies attack the antigen (response)-immunoglobulin E, or IgE.-an allergic reaction is an overreaction to the antigen- hypersensitivity
*negative feedback loop
-Antibody promotes production and release of chemicals and hormones called "mediators."
Even More Info
-lung conditions that affect breathing, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-asthma-frequent infections of the nasal sinuses, ears, or respiratory tract -nasal polyps -sensitive skin
Symptoms of Allergic Reactions
Treatment for minor
Treatment for severe
For relief of long-term allergies such as hay fever or reactions to dust or animal dander:
- Long-acting prescription antihistamines, such as cetirizine (Zyrtec), fexofenadine (Allegra), and loratadine (Claritin)
- Nasal corticosteroid sprays are widely prescribed for nasal symptoms not relieved by antihistamines.
Chronic lung disease characterized by inadequate flow of oxygen into the respiratory system due to inflamed and swollen airways.
Swollen & Sensitive Airways
Surrounding Muscles Tighten
◊ Not associated with allergic reactions
◊ Triggered by anxiety, stress, weather, exercise.. Etc.
◊ Regular Symptoms
◊ Triggered by allergic reactions
◊ Triggered by inhaled allergens: pollen, dander, etc.
◊ Regular Symptoms and more
Types Of Asthma
Why do symptoms occur?
Leukotrienes & Histamines
• Antibodies in blood/body fluids identify a foreign object
• Antigens trigger response to destroy the invading microorganism
• Production of leukotrienes & pro- inflammatory response
• Muscle contractions and inflammations
• Range from minor to severe
• Can be life threatening
• Can be maintained
Triggers & Treatments
No Cure only Control
trying to avoid triggers, etc.