Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates. CH 2 OH. O. H. H. H. OH. H. OH. HO. H. OH. Carbohydrates. _____________ _____________. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. sugar. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate CH 2 O

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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates


Carbohydrates

CH2OH

O

H

H

H

OH

H

OH

HO

H

OH

Carbohydrates

__________________________


Carbohydrates1

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O

    carbo - hydr - ate

    CH2O

    (CH2O)x C6H12O6

  • Function:

    • ____________u____________

    • ____________u____________

  • Monomer: sugars

  • ex: sugars, starches, cellulose

(CH2O)x

C6H12O6


Sugars

H

O

C

CH2OH

CH2OH

C

OH

O

H

H

O

H

H

H

OH

H

OH

H

C

H

HO

OH

HO

HO

H

H

H

OH

OH

H

Glyceraldehyde

Glucose

Ribose

Sugars

  • Most names for sugars end in _________

  • Classified by number of carbons

    • 6C = hexose (glucose)

    • 5C = pentose (ribose)

    • 3C = triose (glyceraldehyde)

6

5

3


Carbohydrates

Functional groups determine function

carbonyl

_________

carbonyl

_________


Sugar structure

Sugar structure

5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution

Where do you find solutionsin biology?

In cells!

Carbons are numbered


Numbered carbons

Numbered carbons

C

C

O

C

C

C

C

energy stored in C-C bonds


Simple complex sugars

CH2OH

O

H

H

H

OH

H

OH

HO

H

OH

Glucose

Simple & complex sugars

  • ____________________

    • _______________________

    • _______________________

  • ____________________

    • _______________________

    • _______________________

  • ____________________

    • _______________________

    • _______________________


Building sugars

H2O

Building sugars

  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

glucose

|

maltose

________________


Building sugars1

H2O

Building sugars

  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

fructose

|

sucrose

(table sugar)


Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides

  • Polymers of sugars

    • costs little energy to build

    • easily reversible = release energy

  • Function:

    • ___________________

      • ______________________

      • ______________________

        • in liver & muscles

    • ___________________

      • ______________________

      • ______________________


Linear vs branched polysaccharides

Linear vs. branched polysaccharides

slow release

__________

__________

What doesbranching do?

energystorage

__________

__________

fast release


Polysaccharide diversity

Polysaccharide diversity

  • Molecular structure determines function

in starch

in cellulose

  • isomers of glucose

  • structure determines function…


Digesting starch vs cellulose

enzyme

enzyme

Digesting starch vs. cellulose

starcheasy todigest

cellulosehard todigest


Cellulose

Cellulose

  • Most abundant organic compound on Earth

    • herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulose

    • most carnivores have not

      • that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients

      • _____________________________

But it tasteslike hay!Who can liveon this stuff?!


Carbohydrates

Cow

can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars

Gorilla

can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet


Helpful bacteria

Helpful bacteria

  • How can herbivores digest cellulose so well?

    • BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals

Caprophage

Tell me aboutthe rabbits,again, George!

I eatWHAT!

Ruminants


Let s build some carbohydrates

EAT

X

Let’s build some

Carbohydrates!


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