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LECTURE 8. BISHOP BERKELEY DEMOLISHES THE “EXTERNAL WORLD”. WHAT ARE THE IMMEDIATE OBJECTS OF PERCEPTION?. PHILONOUS REPRESENTS BERKELEY. HYLAS IS A PHILOSOPHICALLY EDUCATED FOIL FOR BERKELEY’S ARGUMENTS. “WHAT IS A “SENSIBLE ‘OBJECT’”?

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Lecture 8

LECTURE 8

BISHOP BERKELEY

DEMOLISHES THE “EXTERNAL WORLD”


What are the immediate objects of perception
WHAT ARE THE IMMEDIATE OBJECTS OF PERCEPTION?

PHILONOUS REPRESENTS BERKELEY. HYLAS IS A PHILOSOPHICALLY EDUCATED FOIL FOR BERKELEY’S ARGUMENTS.

“WHAT IS A “SENSIBLE ‘OBJECT’”?

A SENSIBLE OBJECT IS AN IMMEDIATE OBJECT OF PERCEPTION



Berkeley s sensible qualities argument
BERKELEY’S “SENSIBLE QUALITIES”ARGUMENT

  • THE “SENSIBLE OBJECTS” ARE THE IMMEDIATE OBJECTS OF PERCEPTION.

  • THE IMMEDIATE OBJECTS OF PERCEPTION ARE SENSIBLE QUALITIES (OR COMBINATIONS OF SUCH).

    (3) A SENSIBLE QUALITY CANNOT BE OUTSIDE OF THE MIND – SUCH QUALITIES ARE PARTS OF SENSATIONS.


Conclusion
CONCLUSION

  • THE SENSIBLE OBJECTS ARE MENTAL: QUALITIES AND COMBINATIONS OF QUALITIES IN THE MIND.

    BERKELEY TAKES THIS TO MEAN THAT THE COMMONSENSE OBJECTS OF PERCEPTION ARE ENTIRELY WITHIN THE MIND (THERE REALLY IS NO REASON TO BELIEVE IN AN “EXTERNAL WORLD”.


The continuity argument
THE CONTINUITY ARGUMENT

  • HEAT VARIES CONTINUOUSLY FROM A SMALL DEGREE TO AN INTENSE DEGREE.

    (2) AN INTENSE DEGREE OF HEAT IS IDENTICAL WITH THE PAIN FELT BY A PERCEIVER.

  • PAIN IS ENTIRELY WITHIN THE MIND OF THE PERCEIVER.

    (4) ALL DEGREES OF HEAT ARE “EQUALLY REAL” (I.E., IN THE MIND OR WITHOUT THE MIND)


Conclusion1
CONCLUSION

(5) HEAT IN ALL ITS DEGREES IS A SENSIBLE QUALITY IN THE MIND OF THE PERCEIVER.

PHILONOUS (BERKELEY) ALSO ARGUES THAT A WARMTH CAN BE IDENTICAL WITH A PLEASURE – AND HENCE ALSO LOW DEGREES OF HEAT ARE ENTIRELY WITHIN THE MIND.


The lukewarm water argument
THE LUKEWARM WATER ARGUMENT

  • IF A PERCEIVER PUTS A COLD HAND AND A WARM HAND INTO LUKEWARM WATER, THE WATER WILL BE FELT COLD AND HOT.

    (2) THE SAME THING CANNOT BE BOTH COLD AND HOT AT THE SAME TIME.

    (3) THE COLDNESS AND THE HOTNESS MUST BE SENSIBLE QUALITIES IN THE MIND (IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF “TACTILE SPACE.”)


The pin and the coal
THE PIN AND THE COAL

  • WHEN A PERCEIVER “PRICKS HIS FINGER WITH A PIN”, THE PAIN IS CERTAINLY NOT IN THE PIN.

    (2) BY ANALOGY, WHEN A PERCEIVER “BURNS HIS FINGER WITH A COAL”, THE HEAT IS IDENTICAL WITH THE PAIN AND IS CERTAINLY NOT IN THE COAL.


Sugar and wormwood
SUGAR AND WORMWOOD

(1) WHEN THE SWEETNESS OF SUGAR IS PERCEIVED, IT IS A PLEASURE.

(2) WHEN THE BITTERNESS OF WORMWOOD IS PERCEIVED, IT IS A DISPLEASURE.

(3) PLEASURES AND DISPLEASURE MUST BE IN THE MIND OF A PERCEIVER. SO SWEETNESS AND BITTERNESS ARE IN THE MIND.


Odors motions sounds colors size extension
ODORS, MOTIONS, SOUNDS, COLORS, SIZE, EXTENSION

  • PHILONOUS ARGUES CASE BY CASE THAT SENSIBLE QUALITIES ARE ALL IN THE MIND – INCLUDING MOTION (!).

  • HYLAS APPEALS TO THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY QUALITIES.


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