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Grammar Review. Clause vs. Phrase. Clause: A group of related words with both a subject and a verb. May or may not be able to stand on its own. Phrase: A group of related words without both a subject or a verb. Acts as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Cannot stand on its own.

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Clause vs phrase
Clause vs. Phrase

  • Clause: A group of related words with both a subject and a verb. May or may not be able to stand on its own.

  • Phrase: A group of related words without both a subject or a verb. Acts as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Cannot stand on its own.


Clause types
Clause Types

  • Independent Clause: She is older than her brother.

  • Dependent Clause: Because she is older than her brother, she has to watch him sometimes.

    • A word called a “subordinating conjunction” introduces a dependent clause.


Phrase vs dependent clause
Phrase vs. Dependent Clause

  • Both phrases and dependent clauses cannot stand alone.

  • However, dependent clauses must have a subject and a verb, while phrases can only have one.

  • Also, dependent clauses start with subordinating conjunctions, while phrases do not.


Common subordinating conjunctions
Common subordinating conjunctions

  • after

  • although

  • as

  • as if

  • as long as

  • as though

  • because

  • before

  • even if

  • even though

  • if

  • if only

  • in order that

  • now that

  • once

  • rather than

  • since

  • so that

  • than

  • that

  • though

  • till

  • unless

  • until

  • when

  • whenever

  • where

  • whereas

  • wherever

  • while


Phrases that act like nous
Phrases that act like nous

  • Simple noun phrases

    • Noun + modifiers

    • (Can be a subject, object of a verb, or object of a preposition).

      • Examples: A very tired Thomas looked for his blue shirt. The substitute teacher taught all of the kindergarteners today.

  • Gerund phrases

    • Gerund (verb + -ing) + modifiers

      • Example: She began thinking about her life.

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)

    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers

      • Example: He likes to play soccer.


Write three sentences use each kind of noun phrase and underline it
Write three sentences. Use each kind of noun phrase and underline it.

  • Simple noun phrase

  • Gerund phrase

  • Infinitive phrase


Phrases that act like adjectives
Phrases that act like adjectives underline it.

  • Simple adjective phrases

    • Adjective + modifiers

      • Example: He was wearing his nice red shirt.

  • Participial phrases

    • Participle + modifiers

      • Example: The children, needing guidance, asked for help.

  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)

    • Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiers

      • Example: The man on the roof tried not to fall.

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)

    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers

      • Example: Her plan to win student council president was a good one.


Write 4 sentences include each type of adjective phrase and underline it
Write 4 sentences, include each type of adjective phrase, and underline it.

  • Simple adjective phrases

  • Participial phrases

  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)


Phrases that act like adverbs
Phrases that act like adverbs and underline it.

  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)

    • Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiers

      • Example: The babysitter shouted in a loud voice.

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)

    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers

      • Example: He yelled to warn everyone about the broken glass.


Write two sentences with adverb phrases underline each
Write two sentences with adverb phrases, underline each and underline it.

  • Prepositional phrase (sometimes)

  • Infinitive phrase (sometimes)


Phrases that act like verbs
Phrases that act like verbs and underline it.

  • Verb phrase

    • Verb (+helping verb, sometimes) + all modifiers

    • (It’s the predicate of the sentence.)

      • Examples: She has been studying for three hours. Thomas wrote an excellent essay.



Absolute phrases
Absolute Phrases and underline it.

  • Modify (give information about) the entire sentence.

    • Noun or pronoun + participle + modifiers

    • Resembles a clause, but its verb can’t stand alone (it is not a “finite” verb)

      • Examples: Her eyes on the clock, Lisa waited for her shift to end. He looked different, his face expressing worry.



Sentence types
Sentence Types and underline it.

  • Simple: Subject + Verb (Independent Clause)

  • Compound: Two Independent Clauses joined by a Coordinating Conjunction

  • Complex: Independent Clause with one or more Dependent Clauses. Always has a Subordinating Conjunction or Relative Pronoun.

  • Compound-Complex: Two Independent Clauses and one or more Dependent Clauses.


Sentence types1
Sentence Types and underline it.

  • Simple: Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.

  • Compound: Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off.

  • Complex: When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.

  • Compound-complex: The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.


Break it down
Break it down! and underline it.

  • Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.

    • This is an independent clause. It has a subject (students) and a verb (prefer), and it can stand alone.

    • It is made up of many phrases!

      • noun phrases (some students) (their homework)

      • verb phrase (prefer to do their homework in the morning)

      • infinitive phrase that acts like a noun because it is the object of a verb (to do their homework)

      • prepositional phrase (in the morning)


Simple sentence
Simple sentence and underline it.

  • Write your own simple sentence. Circle the subject and underline the verb.


Break it down1
Break it down! and underline it.

  • Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off.

    • This sentence has two independent clauses. Each has a subject (Tina/Alex) and a verb (had/took).

    • It is made of many phrases!

      • Verb phrases (had to work tonight/took the night off)

      • Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “had” (to work tonight)

      • Noun phrase because it is the object of the verb “took” (the night off)


Compound sentence
Compound sentence and underline it.

  • Write your own compound sentence

  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs


Break it down2
Break it down! and underline it.

  • When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.

    • This sentence has a dependent clause (subject: he. verb: handed. subordinating conjunction: when).

    • It also has an independent clause (subject: he. verb: forgot)

    • It is made up of phrases!

      • Verb phrases (finished his work/forgot to put his name on it)

      • Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “forgot” (to put his name on it)

      • Prepositional phrase acting as an adverb because it answers the question “what” (on it)


Complex sentence
Complex sentence and underline it.

  • Write your own complex sentence

  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs


Break it down3
Break it down! and underline it.

  • The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.

    • This sentence has two independent clauses and one dependent clause. Subjects: animal/it/it. Verbs: was/was/had been.

    • It is made up of verb phrases: was scared/was also angry/had been cornered.


Compound complex sentence
Compound-complex sentence and underline it.

  • Write your own compound-complex sentence.

  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs.


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