Grammar review
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Grammar Review. Clause vs. Phrase. Clause: A group of related words with both a subject and a verb. May or may not be able to stand on its own. Phrase: A group of related words without both a subject or a verb. Acts as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Cannot stand on its own.

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Grammar Review

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Grammar review

Grammar Review


Clause vs phrase

Clause vs. Phrase

  • Clause: A group of related words with both a subject and a verb. May or may not be able to stand on its own.

  • Phrase: A group of related words without both a subject or a verb. Acts as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Cannot stand on its own.


Clause types

Clause Types

  • Independent Clause: She is older than her brother.

  • Dependent Clause: Because she is older than her brother, she has to watch him sometimes.

    • A word called a “subordinating conjunction” introduces a dependent clause.


Phrase vs dependent clause

Phrase vs. Dependent Clause

  • Both phrases and dependent clauses cannot stand alone.

  • However, dependent clauses must have a subject and a verb, while phrases can only have one.

  • Also, dependent clauses start with subordinating conjunctions, while phrases do not.


Common subordinating conjunctions

Common subordinating conjunctions

  • after

  • although

  • as

  • as if

  • as long as

  • as though

  • because

  • before

  • even if

  • even though

  • if

  • if only

  • in order that

  • now that

  • once

  • rather than

  • since

  • so that

  • than

  • that

  • though

  • till

  • unless

  • until

  • when

  • whenever

  • where

  • whereas

  • wherever

  • while


Phrases that act like nous

Phrases that act like nous

  • Simple noun phrases

    • Noun + modifiers

    • (Can be a subject, object of a verb, or object of a preposition).

      • Examples: A very tired Thomas looked for his blue shirt. The substitute teacher taught all of the kindergarteners today.

  • Gerund phrases

    • Gerund (verb + -ing) + modifiers

      • Example: She began thinking about her life.

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)

    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers

      • Example: He likes to play soccer.


Write three sentences use each kind of noun phrase and underline it

Write three sentences. Use each kind of noun phrase and underline it.

  • Simple noun phrase

  • Gerund phrase

  • Infinitive phrase


Phrases that act like adjectives

Phrases that act like adjectives

  • Simple adjective phrases

    • Adjective + modifiers

      • Example: He was wearing his nice red shirt.

  • Participial phrases

    • Participle + modifiers

      • Example: The children, needing guidance, asked for help.

  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)

    • Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiers

      • Example: The man on the roof tried not to fall.

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)

    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers

      • Example: Her plan to win student council president was a good one.


Write 4 sentences include each type of adjective phrase and underline it

Write 4 sentences, include each type of adjective phrase, and underline it.

  • Simple adjective phrases

  • Participial phrases

  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)


Phrases that act like adverbs

Phrases that act like adverbs

  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)

    • Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiers

      • Example: The babysitter shouted in a loud voice.

  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)

    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers

      • Example: He yelled to warn everyone about the broken glass.


Write two sentences with adverb phrases underline each

Write two sentences with adverb phrases, underline each

  • Prepositional phrase (sometimes)

  • Infinitive phrase (sometimes)


Phrases that act like verbs

Phrases that act like verbs

  • Verb phrase

    • Verb (+helping verb, sometimes) + all modifiers

    • (It’s the predicate of the sentence.)

      • Examples: She has been studying for three hours. Thomas wrote an excellent essay.


Write one sentence with a verb phrase underline it

Write one sentence with a verb phrase. Underline it.


Absolute phrases

Absolute Phrases

  • Modify (give information about) the entire sentence.

    • Noun or pronoun + participle + modifiers

    • Resembles a clause, but its verb can’t stand alone (it is not a “finite” verb)

      • Examples: Her eyes on the clock, Lisa waited for her shift to end. He looked different, his face expressing worry.


Write one sentence with an absolute phrase underline it

Write one sentence with an absolute phrase. Underline it.


Sentence types

Sentence Types

  • Simple: Subject + Verb (Independent Clause)

  • Compound: Two Independent Clauses joined by a Coordinating Conjunction

  • Complex: Independent Clause with one or more Dependent Clauses. Always has a Subordinating Conjunction or Relative Pronoun.

  • Compound-Complex: Two Independent Clauses and one or more Dependent Clauses.


Sentence types1

Sentence Types

  • Simple: Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.

  • Compound: Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off.

  • Complex: When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.

  • Compound-complex: The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.


Break it down

Break it down!

  • Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.

    • This is an independent clause. It has a subject (students) and a verb (prefer), and it can stand alone.

    • It is made up of many phrases!

      • noun phrases (some students) (their homework)

      • verb phrase (prefer to do their homework in the morning)

      • infinitive phrase that acts like a noun because it is the object of a verb (to do their homework)

      • prepositional phrase (in the morning)


Simple sentence

Simple sentence

  • Write your own simple sentence. Circle the subject and underline the verb.


Break it down1

Break it down!

  • Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off.

    • This sentence has two independent clauses. Each has a subject (Tina/Alex) and a verb (had/took).

    • It is made of many phrases!

      • Verb phrases (had to work tonight/took the night off)

      • Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “had” (to work tonight)

      • Noun phrase because it is the object of the verb “took” (the night off)


Compound sentence

Compound sentence

  • Write your own compound sentence

  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs


Break it down2

Break it down!

  • When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.

    • This sentence has a dependent clause (subject: he. verb: handed. subordinating conjunction: when).

    • It also has an independent clause (subject: he. verb: forgot)

    • It is made up of phrases!

      • Verb phrases (finished his work/forgot to put his name on it)

      • Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “forgot” (to put his name on it)

      • Prepositional phrase acting as an adverb because it answers the question “what” (on it)


Complex sentence

Complex sentence

  • Write your own complex sentence

  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs


Break it down3

Break it down!

  • The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.

    • This sentence has two independent clauses and one dependent clause. Subjects: animal/it/it. Verbs: was/was/had been.

    • It is made up of verb phrases: was scared/was also angry/had been cornered.


Compound complex sentence

Compound-complex sentence

  • Write your own compound-complex sentence.

  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs.


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